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Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 Chapter 14 Attachment and Social Relationships.

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Presentation on theme: "Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 Chapter 14 Attachment and Social Relationships."— Presentation transcript:

1 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 Chapter 14 Attachment and Social Relationships

2 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 Attachment The case of “Baby Jessica” –Children are resilient –Negative early experiences rarely ruin them for life Close relationships provide –Learning experiences –Social support (social convoy)

3 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 Attachment Theory Bowlby: A strong affectional tie that binds a person to an intimate companion Helps regulate distress by proximity seeking –By about 6-7 months Ainsworth: special, irreplaceable people –Desire to maintain proximity –Derive a sense of security Bowlby: normal environment important

4 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 Ethology Konrad Lorenz: Imprinting –Critical period –Irreversible Humans: Attachment –Sensitive period –Predisposed

5 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 Figure 14.2

6 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 Childhood Peers Important for social development Piaget: equal power among peers –Requires cooperation, negotiation skills Sullivan: Peers important after age 6 –Changing interpersonal needs Harris: Parental influence is overrated –Peers more important for development

7 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 Emotions in Infancy Timing of emotions biologically programmed –Tied to cognitive maturation –Evolved to ensure that caregivers respond Social referencing by months – monitor reactions in others to help define situation, regulate behavior and emotions –Modeling, imitation, reinforcement

8 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 Figure 14.1

9 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 Caregiver’s Attachment to Infant Early contact not crucial nor sufficient Neonatal reflexes endearing: e.g., smiling Cooing and babbling: early conversations Synchronized routines –Peek-A-Boo –Sensitive responding a must –Over-stimulation/under-stimulation

10 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 Infant’s Attachment to Caregiver Social responsiveness –At birth: undiscriminating –2-6 mo: preferences develop Proximity seeking –6 mo to 3 yr –Attachment figures –Mental representation abilities needed

11 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 Attachment-Related Fears Separation anxiety: 6-8 mo –Peaks around mo –Gradually wanes Stranger anxiety: 8-10 mo –Declines during 2 nd yr Ainsworth: secure base for exploration

12 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14

13 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 Quality of Attachment Caregiver provides “contact comfort” Ainsworth: Strange Situation Test –Secure attachment: most –Insecure attachment categories Inconsistent care > resistant Insensitive stimulation > avoidant –Rejection, impatient, resentful –Intrusive Abusive > disorganized/disoriented

14 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14

15 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 Infant Characteristics Must acquire person permanence Temperament a factor Reaction to parenting style –*Goodness of fit

16 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 Context of Attachment Culture –Individualistic: encourage independence e.g., Japan resistant –Collectivist: encourage group conformity e.g., Western avoidant

17 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 Effects of Social Deprivation Infants grieve when separated from caregiver –Recover when reunited or upon forming new attachments A series of separations more harmful Romanian orphans –Insecure, anxious –Difficulty coping with stress Need sustained interaction with responsive caregivers – one or a few

18 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 Later Outcomes Securely attached child –Cognitively and socially competent –Expect positive reactions Insecurely attached child –Withdrawn, dependent, fearful –Less competent Patterns last through adolescence

19 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 Conclusions Attachment to fathers, grandparents, etc. –Can compensate for poor attachment Secure attachments may change –Stressful events: divorce, illness Insecure attachments may change –Lifestyle improvements Later relationships influenced by nature of early attachment

20 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 Peer Relations 18 mo: first peers –Turn taking –Reciprocal play Age 2-12: increasing time spent –Same sex peers –Similar age and play preferences

21 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 Play Age 1-2: Pretend play Age 2-5: Social play Age 5-6: Rule-based games By age 11-2: Rule flexibility Play is beneficial –Cognitive development –Social skills

22 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 Peer Acceptance Sociometric techniques –Most popular kids Attractive, intelligent Socially competent –Rejected kids Highly aggressive Socially isolated, overly sensitive, submissive

23 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 Adolescents Parents still important Boy-girl friendships and dates –Dating: Dunphy’s phases Initiation; Status; Affection; Bonding Friendships: More intimacy Friends similar psychologically Cliques and crowds Increased conformity

24 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 Figure 14.6

25 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14 The Adult Social networks shrink Closer to family Romantic attachments Adult friendships valued Important to have one confidant

26 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 14


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