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Patterns of Attachment Secure (about 65%) –Infants actively seek proximity to caregivers upon reunion –Communicate their feelings of stress and distress.

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Presentation on theme: "Patterns of Attachment Secure (about 65%) –Infants actively seek proximity to caregivers upon reunion –Communicate their feelings of stress and distress."— Presentation transcript:

1 Patterns of Attachment Secure (about 65%) –Infants actively seek proximity to caregivers upon reunion –Communicate their feelings of stress and distress openly and then readily return to play Insecure-Avoidant (about 20%) (Group A) –Infants who do not seem distressed during separation and ignore caregiver upon return. (more angry and negative than other 2 groups) Insecure-Ambivalent (about 15%) (Group C) –Infants who become extremely distressed when the caregiver departs but are ambivalent or resistent on her return. They run to her but then arch away or push her. Disorganized/Disoriented (~5% of insecurely attached) –Changeable, confused behavior, exhibit fear toward mom but still approach

2 what determines attachment style? the care-giving hypotheses “Secure” parenting Sensitivity (responding promptly, consistently, and appropriately) Positive attitude, affectionate Support/attentiveness Stimulation “Avoidant” parenting Less of “secure” attributes Aversion to bodily contact Rejecting More angry and yet less emotional expression overall “Ambivalent” parenting Less of “secure” attributes anxious More evidence of difficult temperament

3 Attachment and Temperament Because of the correlational nature of the studies on parenting style and attachment can’t determine direction or if third variable E.g. child’s temperament could lead to changes in parenting style Or, the mom’s and infant’s behavior could correlate due to shared genes

4 Culture, Experience, and Attachment Northern Germany: Parents encourage children to be independent and discourage close ‘clingy’ behavior. More German babies show avoidant attachment than US babies. Intense separation anxiety (characteristic of ambivalent style) more common in Japan where caregivers rarely leave their children with substitute caregivers. Thus, child’s early experiences (amount of contact with strangers, day care etc) can explain some of the differences on the Strange Situation

5 Long Term Effects? Securely Attached –age 2-6. Better problem solvers (persistent and enthusiastic), more complex creative play, more positive emotions, cooperative and sympathetic, more attractive playmates. –age 11-15. Better social skills, better peer relations more likely to have more close friends Insecure –age 2-3. Socially and emotionally withdrawn, hesitant to initiate play behaviors with peers, less curious, less interested in learning. –age 11-15. Poor peer relations, fewer close friendships, more likely to have psychopathological symptoms. –Avoidant = more likely to display ‘deviant’ behaviors (disruption/disobedience) –Ambivalent = easily frustrated, less competent

6 Long Term Effects? Is this because of the importance of the very first interactions between caregiver and infant? Or because good parents tend to stay good parents and bad, bad…? Regardless of the “cause” intervention seems helpful

7 BPD characterized by unstable relationships, low self- esteem, and problems with impulsive behavior that begins by early adulthood. 1 A key feature of this disorder is fear of being abandoned, even if the threat of abandonment is not real. 1 2% of pop. 2-3 times more common in females Insecure ambivalent attachment (and perception of lack of caring from mom) uniquely associated with BDP (Nickell et. al. 2002)

8 BPD DSM-IV (5 or more of the following) 1.Desperate attempts to avoid abandonment (real or imagined) 2.Unstable and intense relationships (alternating between intense admiration and hate) “I hate you—don’t leave me” 3.Unstable sense of self/identity “I’ll be whatever you want me to be” 4.Extremely impulsive (self-damaging) 5.Highly unstable mood (overreactions) 6.Easily provoked to anger or rage 7.Chronic feelings of emptiness, boredom or loneliness 8.Self-mutilation or chronic suicidal thoughts/attempts 9.Under stress experience paranoia or dissociation

9 Predictive Variables/Potential Causes? Gender Biological vulnerability Difficult temperament History of abuse Parental divorce, illness, or death # of mother or father “surrogates” *Parental neglect *Emotional denial *Inconsistent parental treatment

10 Diathesis Stress Model Biological vulnerability + environment (e.g. emotional neglect/indifference, inconsistent parenting) Risk versus Resilience factors

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