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The Human Body in Health and Illness, 4 th edition Barbara Herlihy Chapter 2: Basic Chemistry 1.

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Presentation on theme: "The Human Body in Health and Illness, 4 th edition Barbara Herlihy Chapter 2: Basic Chemistry 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Human Body in Health and Illness, 4 th edition Barbara Herlihy Chapter 2: Basic Chemistry 1

2 Lesson 2-1 Objectives Define the terms matter and element. List the four elements that compose 96% of body weight. Describe the three components of an atom. Describe the role of electrons in the formation of chemical bonds. Differentiate among ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds. Explain the differences among electrolytes, ions, cations, and anions. Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 2

3 Matter Matter: Anything that occupies space and has weight Matter exists in three states. – Solid – Liquid – Gas Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 3

4 Matter: Two Types of Changes Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 4

5 Elements Element: Matter composed of atoms that have the same number of positive charges in their nuclei Trace elements: Present in tiny amounts; essential for life Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 5

6 Elements (contd) Four elements make up about 96% of human body weight. Oxygen65.0% Carbon 18.5% Hydrogen 9.5% Nitrogen 3.2% Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 6

7 Atoms Atom: Smallest unit of an element with that elements chemical characteristics Three subatomic particles Protons Neutrons Electrons Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 7

8 Atoms (contd.) Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 8

9 Atoms (contd.) Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 9

10 Atoms (contd.) Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 10

11 Atoms (contd.) Atomic number: The number of protons in the nucleus Atomic mass: Sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom Isotope: A different form of the same atom; same atomic number, different atomic mass Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 11

12 Chemical Bonds Chemical bond: The electrical attraction between atoms Three types of chemical bonds – Covalent – Hydrogen – Ionic Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 12

13 Chemical Bonds (contd.) Ionic bond: Caused by a transfer of electrons between atoms Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 13

14 Chemical Bonds (contd.) Covalent bond: Involves a sharing of electrons by the outer shells of the atoms Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14

15 Chemical Bonds (contd.) Hydrogen bond: An intermolecular attraction, not caused by transfer of electrons or sharing of electrons by outer shells of the atoms Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 15

16 Ions Ions: Atoms or groups of atoms that carry an electrical charge Two types of ions – Cations: Positively charged – Anions: Negatively charged Electrolytes: Form ions when dissolved in water Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 16

17 Common Ions: Cations NameSymbolFunction Cations Sodium Calcium Iron Na + Ca 2+ Fe 2+ Fluid balance; nerve-muscle function Component of bones and teeth; blood clotting; muscle contraction Component of hemoglobin Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 17

18 Common Ions: Cations (contd.) NameSymbolFunction Cations (contd.) Hydrogen Potassium Ammonium H + K + NH 4 + Important in acid-base balance Nerve and muscle function Important in acid-base regulation Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 18

19 Common Ions: Anions NameSymbolFunction Anions Chloride Bicarbonate Phosphate Cl HCO 3 PO 4 3 Primary extracellular anion Important in acid-base regulation Component of bones and teeth; component of ATP Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 19

20 Electrolytes and Ionization When an electrolyte breaks apart in solution, the electrolyte is said to dissociate or ionize. Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 20

21 Lesson 2-2 Objectives Explain the difference between a molecule and a compound. List five reasons why water is essential to life. Explain the role of catalysts and enzymes. Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 21

22 Lesson 2-2 Objectives (contd.) Differentiate between an acid and a base. Define pH. Define energy and describe the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in energy transfer. Differentiate among mixtures, solutions, suspensions, colloidal suspensions, and precipitates. Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 22

23 Molecules and Compounds Molecule: Two or more atoms bonded together Compound: Molecules formed by two or more different atoms Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 23

24 Water: A Vital Substance Universal solvent Temperature regulator Ideal lubricant Crucial part of most chemical reactions Protective mechanism Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 24

25 Chemical Reactions Chemical reaction: The interaction of atoms of molecules or compounds to form new chemical combinations Catalysts: Chemical substances that speed up the rate of a chemical reaction Enzymes: Proteins that serve as catalysts Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 25

26 Acids and Bases Acid: An electrolyte that dissociates into H + (hydrogen ion) and an anion Base: Substance, often OH - (hydroxyl ion), that combines with H + to make a solution less acidic Acids and bases can be strong or weak Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 26

27 pH Scale pH: Unit of measurement indicating how many hydrogen ions are in a solution pH scale: Ranges from 0 to 14 Midpoint of scale: pH 7, or neutral Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 27

28 Normal blood pH: 7.35 to 7.45 Acidosis – Too many H + ions – pH less than 7.35 Alkalosis – Too few H + ions – pH greater than 7.45 Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 28

29 Energy: Ability to Perform Work Six forms of energy – Mechanical – Chemical – Electrical – Radiant – Thermal – Nuclear Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 29

30 Energy Transfer Adenosine triphosphate (ATP): Energy transfer molecule Three parts of ATP – Base – Sugar – Three phosphate groups Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 30

31 Energy Transfer (contd.) Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 31

32 Energy Transfer (contd.) Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 32

33 Energy Transfer (contd.) After the food we eat is broken down, energy is released. This energy is transferred to ATP so it can be used by the cells of the body. Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 33

34 Mixtures Mixtures: Combinations of two or more substances that can be separated by ordinary physical means. Example: A sugar-iron mixture can be separated by a magnet. Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 34

35 Solutions Solutions have two parts that remain evenly distributed (e.g., normal saline). – Solute: Substance present in smaller amount; is the substance being dissolved – Solvent: Part of solution present in greater amount; does the dissolving Two types of solutions – Aqueous solutions – Tinctures Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 35

36 Suspensions and Precipitates Suspensions: Mixtures with relatively large particles Colloidal suspension: Particles remain suspended within the liquid. Precipitates: Solids are formed and fall out of solution during a chemical reaction. Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 36


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