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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 2 Chemistry of Life Revised by R. LeBlanc.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 2 Chemistry of Life Revised by R. LeBlanc."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 2 Chemistry of Life Revised by R. LeBlanc

2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Composition of Matter Chapter 2 Matter Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. Mass is the quantity of matter an object has.

3 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 2 Matter Section 1 Composition of Matter

4 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Composition of Matter Chapter 2 Elements and Atoms Elements are made of a single kind of atom and cannot be broken down by chemical means into simpler substances. Atoms are composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Where are elements listed? In what order are the elements listed?

5 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 2 Element Section 1 Composition of Matter

6 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Composition of Matter Chapter 2 Elements and Atoms, continued The Nucleus –Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of the atom.

7 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Composition of Matter Chapter 2 Elements and Atoms, continued Electrons –Electrons move about the nucleus in orbitals. –An orbital is a three- dimensional region around a nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron.

8 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Composition of Matter Chapter 2 Elements and Atoms, continued Isotopes –Atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons are called isotopes.

9 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Composition of Matter Chapter 2 Compounds Compounds consist of atoms of two or more elements that are joined by chemical bonds in a fixed proportion.

10 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 2 Compounds Section 1 Composition of Matter

11 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Composition of Matter Chapter 2 Compounds, continued Ionic Bonds –An ionic bond is formed when one atom gives up an electron to another. The positive ion is then attracted to a negative ion to form the ionic bond.

12 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 2 Ionic Bonding Section 1 Composition of Matter

13 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 2 Ionic Bonding Section 1 Composition of Matter

14 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Composition of Matter Chapter 2 Compounds, continued Covalent Bonds –A covalent bond is formed when two atoms share electrons.

15 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 2 Covalent Bonding Section 1 Composition of Matter

16 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Energy Chapter 2 Objectives Describe the physical properties of each state of matter. Describe the role of reactants and products in chemical reactions. Explain the relationship between enzymes and activation energy. Explain how oxidation and reduction reactions are linked.

17 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Energy Chapter 2 Energy and Matter States of Matter –Addition of energy to a substance can cause its state to change from a solid to a liquid and from a liquid to a gas.

18 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 2 Energy Section 2 Energy

19 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Energy Chapter 2 Energy and Chemical Reactions Reactants are substances that enter chemical reactions. Products are substances produced by chemical reactions. Chemical Equation for Photosynthesis: 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H O 2

20 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 2 Energy and Chemical Reactions Section 2 Energy

21 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Energy Chapter 2 Energy and Chemical Reactions, continued Activation Energy –Enzymes lower the amount of activation energy necessary for a reaction to begin in living systems.

22 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 2 Activation Energy and Chemical Reactions Section 2 Energy

23 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Photosynthesis Process of using carbon dioxide, water and energy to create glucose (food) for use by a plant 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy = C 6 H 12 O 6 +6O 2 What are the reactants in this reaction? What are the products?

24 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Energy Chapter 2 Energy and Chemical Reactions, continued Oxidation Reduction Reactions –A chemical reaction in which electrons are exchanged between atoms is called an oxidation- reduction reaction.

25 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Water and Solutions Chapter 2 Objectives Describe the structure of a water molecule. Explain how waters polar nature affects its ability to dissolve substances. Outline the relationship between hydrogen bonding and the different properties of water. Identify the roles of solutes and solvents in solutions. Differentiate between acids and bases.

26 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Water and Solutions Chapter 2 Polarity Water is considered to be a polar molecule due to an uneven distribution of charge. The electrons in a water molecule are shared unevenly between hydrogen and oxygen.

27 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Water and Solutions Chapter 2 Polarity, continued Solubility of Water –The polarity of water makes it effective at dissolving other polar substances such as sugars, ionic compounds, and some proteins.

28 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Water and Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions A solution consists of a solute dissolved in a solvent.

29 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Salt dissolving in water Hydrogen bonds make water a good solvent. Water molecules form shells around positive and negative ions, eliminating their attraction for each other.

30 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Salt dissolving in water

31 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Water and Solutions Chapter 2 Hydrogen Bonding A hydrogen bond is the force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positive charge and another atom or molecule with a partial or full negative charge.

32 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Water and Solutions Chapter 2 Hydrogen Bonding, continued Cohesion and Adhesion –Cohesion is an attractive force that holds molecules of a single substance together, such as water molecules. –Adhesion is the attractive force between two particles of different substances, such as water molecules and glass molecules.

33 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 2 Comparing Cohesion and Adhesion Section 3 Water and Solutions

34 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu animation Click to view animation. How does water get to the leaves of trees hundreds of feet tall?

35 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Cohesion and Adhesion in Transpiration Woody walls in a plant called xylem. Cohesion and adhesion cause capillary action. Water meniscuses become more concave, increasing the surface tension. Water moves from the roots up to the leaves of a tree.

36 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Water and Solutions Chapter 2 Hydrogen Bonding, continued Temperature Moderation –Water has the ability to absorb a relatively large amount of energy as heat and the ability to cool surfaces through evaporation.

37 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Water and Solutions Chapter 2 Hydrogen Bonding, continued Density of Ice –Solid water is less dense than liquid water due to the shape of the water molecule and hydrogen bonding.

38 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Water and Solutions Chapter 2 Acids and Bases Ionization of Water –Water ionizes into hydronium ions (H 3 O + ) and hydroxide ions (OH – ).

39 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Water and Solutions Chapter 2 Acids and Bases, continued Acids –Acidic solutions contain more hydronium ions than hydroxide ions.

40 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Water and Solutions Chapter 2 Acids and Bases, continued Bases –Basic solutions contain more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions.

41 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 2 Bases Section 3 Water and Solutions

42 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Water and Solutions Chapter 2 Acids and Bases, continued pH –Scientists have developed a scale for comparing the relative concentrations of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions in a solution. This scale is called the pH scale, and it ranges from 0 to 14.

43 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 2 The pH Scale Section 3 Water and Solutions

44 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Water and Solutions Chapter 2 Acids and Bases, continued Buffers –Buffers are chemicals that neutralize the effects of adding small amounts of either an acid or a base to a solution.

45 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 2 pH Section 3 Water and Solutions

46 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice 1. The way in which elements bond to form compounds depends on which of the following? A. the model of the atom B. the structural formula of the compound C. the dissociation of the ions in the compound D. the number and arrangement of electrons in the atoms of the elements Standardized Test Prep Chapter 2

47 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 1. The way in which elements bond to form compounds depends on which of the following? A. the model of the atom B. the structural formula of the compound C. the dissociation of the ions in the compound D. the number and arrangement of electrons in the atoms of the elements Standardized Test Prep Chapter 2

48 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2. If an atom is made up of 6 protons, 7 neutrons, and 6 electrons, what is its atomic number? F. 6 G. 7 H. 13 J. 19 Standardized Test Prep Chapter 2

49 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2. If an atom is made up of 6 protons, 7 neutrons, and 6 electrons, what is its atomic number? F. 6 G. 7 H. 13 J. 19 Standardized Test Prep Chapter 2

50 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3. The amount of energy needed for this chemical reaction to begin is shown by the line rising from the reactants. What is this energy called? A. chemical energy B. electrical energy C. activation energy D. mechanical energy Chapter 2 The graph below shows the energy in a chemical reaction as the reaction progresses. Use the graph to answer the questions that follow. Standardized Test Prep

51 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3. The amount of energy needed for this chemical reaction to begin is shown by the line rising from the reactants. What is this energy called? A. chemical energy B. electrical energy C. activation energy D. mechanical energy Chapter 2 The graph below shows the energy in a chemical reaction as the reaction progresses. Use the graph to answer the questions that follow. Standardized Test Prep

52 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 4. Suppose that this reaction needs a catalyst to proceed. In the absence of a catalyst, the activation energy would be which of the following? F. larger than what is shown G. the same as what is shown H. smaller than what is shown J. not much different from what is shown Chapter 2 The graph below shows the energy in a chemical reaction as the reaction progresses. Use the graph to answer the questions that follow. Standardized Test Prep

53 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 4. Suppose that this reaction needs a catalyst to proceed. In the absence of a catalyst, the activation energy would be which of the following? F. larger than what is shown G. the same as what is shown H. smaller than what is shown J. not much different from what is shown Chapter 2 The graph below shows the energy in a chemical reaction as the reaction progresses. Use the graph to answer the questions that follow. Standardized Test Prep

54 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 5. What is an aqueous solution that contains more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions called? A. a gas B. a base C. a solid D. an acid Chapter 2 The graph below shows the energy in a chemical reaction as the reaction progresses. Use the graph to answer the questions that follow. Standardized Test Prep

55 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 5. What is an aqueous solution that contains more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions called? A. a gas B. a base C. a solid D. an acid Chapter 2 The graph below shows the energy in a chemical reaction as the reaction progresses. Use the graph to answer the questions that follow. Standardized Test Prep

56 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 6. Oxidation : loss :: reduction : F. win G. gain H. take J. forfeit Chapter 2 Standardized Test Prep

57 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 6. Oxidation : loss :: reduction : F. win G. gain H. take J. forfeit Chapter 2 Standardized Test Prep

58 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 7. The covalent bonds on the water molecule depicted in the picture above has partial positive charges on the hydrogen atom and a partial negative charge on the oxygen atom. What do the partial positive and partial negative charges on this water molecule mean? A. Water is an ion. B. Water is a polar molecule. C. Water needs a proton and two electrons to be stable. D. Oxygen atoms and hydrogen atoms have opposite charges. Chapter 2 The illustration below is a space-filling model of water. Use the model to answer the following question. Standardized Test Prep

59 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 7. The covalent bonds on the water molecule depicted in the picture above has partial positive charges on the hydrogen atom and a partial negative charge on the oxygen atom. What do the partial positive and partial negative charges on this water molecule mean? A. Water is an ion. B. Water is a polar molecule. C. Water needs a proton and two electrons to be stable. D. Oxygen atoms and hydrogen atoms have opposite charges. Chapter 2 The illustration below is a space-filling model of water. Use the model to answer the following question. Standardized Test Prep


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