2 Composition of MatterMatter - Everything in the universe is composed of matterMatter is anything that occupies space or has massMass – quantity of matter an object hasWeight – pull of gravity on an object
3 ElementsElements: Pure substance that consists of one type of atom (oxygen), and cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matterMore than 100 elements (92 naturally occurring)Only four of the elements – Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen – make up 96% of the mass of a human.
5 Elements Atomic Number: # of Protons (+) An Element in the Periodic TableSection 2-1Atomic Number: # of Protons (+)Atomic Mass: # of Protons (+) and Neutrons (0)To find the # of Neutrons (0): Atomic Mass – Atomic # = # of Neutrons (0)
6 Atoms: The Building Blocks of Elements Atoms: Basic unit of matter, is the smallest particle of an element that has the characteristics of that element, and is made of subatomic particles (protons “+”, neutrons “0”, and electrons “-”)Atoms contain equal #’s of electrons “-” and protons “+” (no charge)
7 Atoms: The Nucleus Nucleus: Central core of the atom Contains the protons and the neutrons (Protons “+” charge, Neutrons “0” charge)
8 Atoms: The Electron Cloud Electrons are found In the electron cloud around the nucleus (“-” charge)1st level 2 electrons max2nd level 8 electrons max3rd level 18 electrons max
9 Atoms: The Electron Cloud Ex.: Oxygen – Atomic #8 = 8 electrons- 1st energy level (2 electrons)- 2nd energy level (6 electrons)Atoms contain equal numbers of electrons and protons; therefore, they have no net charge.
11 IsotopesIsotopes: Atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons.Ex: Carbon 12 6p and 6nCarbon 13 6p and 7nTo find the number of neutrons, subtract the number of protons from the Mass #13 – 6p = 7n
13 CompoundsCompound: substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements.Compounds form between elements so they can become stable.An atom becomes more stable when its outermost energy level is full, such as having eight electrons in the second level.
14 Bonding Chemical Bonds - Ionic Bond: when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another.-Ions: positively and negatively charged atomsEx. Na(+) Cl(-) (table salt)-Covalent Bond: Forms when electrons are shared by atoms to become stable (water H20)-A molecule is a group of atoms held together by a covalent bond
17 Chemical ReactionsChemical reactions occur when bonds are formed or broken, causing substances to recombine into different substances. (Examples: Metabolism and Photosynthesis)
18 MixturesMixture: A material composed of two or more elements or compounds, in which the individual components retain their own properties.Ex. Salt and Pepper MixtureEx. Earth’s Gases
19 SolutionsSolutions: Is a mixture in which one or more substances (solutes) are distributed evenly in another substance (solvent).-Ex. Salt water ( Salt is the solute – substance that is dissolved, Water is the solvent – substance in which the solute dissolves)
20 SuspensionsSuspensions: Mixtures of water and non-dissolved materials.-Ex. Blood: transports un-dissolved particles throughout the body
21 Acids and BasespH Scale: is a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is. (0 – 14)0 – 6: Acids, higher number of hydrogen ions8 – 14: Bases, higher number of hydroxide ions7: Neutral, not acidic or basicBuffer: Weak acids or bases, that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp sudden changes in pH
23 WaterA water molecule (H2O), is made up of three atoms --- one oxygen and two hydrogen.HO1
24 Importance of WaterWater is perhaps the most important compound in living things.Water is polar. The electrons in water are not shared equally – the electrons are attracted by the oxygen atom more strongly than by the hydrogen atoms. Water can dissolve many ionic compounds, such as salt, yet can also dissolve many other polar molecules such as sugar.
25 Importance of WaterWater molecules also attract other water molecules. The attraction of opposite between hydrogen and oxygen forms a weak bond called a hydrogen bond.Hydrogen bonds are important because they help hold proteins together and moving water throughout plants.
26 Hydrogen BondsCohesion: Attraction of molecules of the same substance.-Ex. Water droplets-Ex. Insects walking on water
27 Hydrogen BondsAdhesion: Attraction of molecules of different substances.-Ex. Water in a glass container
28 Importance of WaterWater resists temperature changes. It is like an insulator that helps maintain a steady environment when conditions fluctuate.Because cells exist in an aqueous environment, this property of water is extremely important to cellular functions as it helps cells maintain homeostasis.
29 Importance of WaterWater expands when it freezes. Water is one of the few substances that expands when it freezes. This property of water breaks down rocks, which then helps form soil.
30 Importance of WaterThe properties of water make it an excellent vehicle for carrying substances in living systems. One way to move substances is by diffusion.Diffusion is the net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
31 Carbon CompoundsCarbon Atoms: In order to become stable, a carbon atom forms four covalent bonds that fill its outer energy level. This property makes a huge number of carbon structures possible.Macromolecule: Monomers join together to form polymersFour groups of organic compounds: Carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins
32 Carbon CompoundsCarbohydrates: Living things use carbohydrates as main source of energy, also can be used for structural purposes.-Ex. Starches and Sugars1. Monosaccharide: (Single sugars Ex. Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose)2. Polysaccharide: Linked to monosaccharides (Ex. Glycogen or Animal starch, plants make cellulose)
33 Carbon CompoundsLipids: Fats and oils, used to store energy, insulation, and protective coating. Non-soluble (Ex. Water and oil)
34 Carbon CompoundsNucleic Acids: Macromolecules that contain hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, and phosphorous.Nucleotides: 3 parts (5 carbon sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogen base)Two types DNA and RNA
35 Carbon CompoundsProteins: Provide structure for tissues and organs and carry out cell metabolism; made of amino acids.- 20 different amino acids- Amino Acids combine to make proteins.
36 Chemical Reactions and Enzymes Chemical Reactions: Process that changes or transforms chemicals into other chemicals.Reactants: Elements or compounds that start the reactionProducts: The end result of the reactants
37 2.4 EnzymesCatalyst: A substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction. (Enzymes and Energy are catalysts)- Enzymes: Proteins found in living things that speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells, speed the reactions in digestion of food, affect synthesis of molecules, and storage and release of energy.