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CHEMICAL BASIS OF LIFE AT THE CELLULAR LEVEL: CHEMISTRY BECOMES BIOLOGY -body functions depend on cellular functions -cellular functions result from chemical.

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Presentation on theme: "CHEMICAL BASIS OF LIFE AT THE CELLULAR LEVEL: CHEMISTRY BECOMES BIOLOGY -body functions depend on cellular functions -cellular functions result from chemical."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHEMICAL BASIS OF LIFE AT THE CELLULAR LEVEL: CHEMISTRY BECOMES BIOLOGY -body functions depend on cellular functions -cellular functions result from chemical changes -biochemistry helps to explain physiological processes, and develop new drugs and methods for treating diseases

2 STRUCTURE OF MATTER MATTER- ANYTHING THAT HAS WEIGHT AND TAKES UP SPACE

3 ELEMENTS AND ATOMS ELEMENT- THE BASIC SUBSTANCE OF MATTER –Living organisms require about 20 elements 65%- Oxygen 18.5%- Carbon 9.5%- Hydrogen 3.2%- Nitrogen 5%- Other ATOM- TINY PARTICLES THAT MAKE UP ELEMENTS –THE SMALLEST COPLETE UNITS OF ELEMENTS –ATOMS OF AN ELEMENT ARE SIMILAR TO EACH, BUT DIFFERENT FROM THOSE OF ANY OTHER ELEMENT

4 Atomic Structure Atoms - composed of subatomic particles: protons – carry a positive charge neutrons – carry no electrical charge electrons – carry a negative charge Nucleus central part of atom composed of protons and neutrons electrons move around the nucleus 2-4

5 Atomic Number and Atomic Weight Atomic Number number of protons in the nucleus of one atom each element has a unique atomic number equals the number of electrons in the atom Atomic Weight the number of protons plus the number of neutrons in one atom electrons do not contribute to the weight of the atom 2-5

6 Molecules and Compounds Molecules – particle formed when two or more atoms chemically combine Compound – particle formed when two or more atoms of different elements chemically combine Molecular formulas – depict the elements present and the number of each atom present in the molecule H 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 H 2 O 2-7

7 Structural Formula Structural formulas show how atoms bond and are arranged in various molecules 2-12

8 Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions occur when chemical bonds form or break among atoms, ions, or molecules Reactants are substances being changed by the chemical reaction Products are substances formed at the end of the chemical reaction NaCl Na + + Cl - ReactantProducts 2-15

9 Types of Chemical Reactions Synthesis Reaction – chemical bonds are formed A + B AB Decomposition Reaction – chemical bonds are broken AB A + B Exchange Reaction – chemical bonds are broken and formed AB + CD AD + CB Reversible Reaction – the products can change back to the reactants A + B AB 2-16

10 Acids, Bases, and Salts Electrolytes – substances that release ions in water Acids – electrolytes that release hydrogen ions in water HCl H + + Cl - Bases – substances that release ions that can combine with hydrogen ions NaOH Na + + OH - Salts – electrolytes formed by the reaction between an acid and a base NaCl Na + + Cl - HCl + NaOH H 2 O + NaCl 2-17

11 Acid and Base Concentrations pH scale - indicates the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution Neutral – pH 7; indicates equal concentrations of H + and OH - Acidic – pH less than 7; indicates a greater concentration of H + Basic or alkaline – pH greater than 7; indicates a greater concentration of OH

12 Organic Versus Inorganic Organic molecules contain C and H usually larger than inorganic molecules dissolve in water and organic liquids carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids Inorganic molecules generally do not contain C usually smaller than organic molecules usually dissolve in water or react with water to release ions water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inorganic salts 2-19

13 Inorganic Substances Water most abundant compound in living material two-thirds of the weight of an adult human major component of all body fluids medium for most metabolic reactions important role in transporting chemicals in the body can absorb and transport heat Oxygen (O 2 ) used by organelles to release energy from nutrients necessary for survival 2-20 Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) waste product released during metabolic reactions must be removed from the body Inorganic salts abundant in body fluids sources of necessary ions (Na +, Cl -, K +, Ca 2+, etc.) play important roles in metabolic processes

14 Organic Substances- Carbohydrates 2-22 provide energy to cells supply materials to build cell structures water-soluble ratio of H to O close to 2:1 (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) monosaccharides – glucose, fructose disaccharides – sucrose, lactose polysaccharides – glycogen, cellulose

15 Organic Substances Lipids soluble in organic solvents fats (triglycerides) used primarily for energy contain C, H, and O but less O than carbohydrates (C 57 H 110 O 6 ) building blocks are 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids per molecule saturated and unsaturated 2-24

16 Organic Substances Lipids phospholipids building blocks are 1 glycerol, 2 fatty acids, and 1 phosphate per molecule hydrophilic and hydrophobic major component of cell membranes 2-25

17 Organic Substances Lipids steroids connected rings of carbon component of cell membrane used to synthesize hormones cholesterol. 2-26

18 Organic Substances Proteins structural material energy source hormones receptors enzymes antibodies building blocks are amino acids amino acids held together with peptide bonds 2-27

19 Organic Substances Proteins Four Levels of Structure 2-28

20 Organic Substances Nucleic Acids constitute genes play role in protein synthesis building blocks are nucleotides DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) – double polynucleotide RNA (ribonucleic acid) – single polynucleotide 2-29

21 Organic Substances Nucleic Acids 2-30

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