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Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Chapter 7.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Chapter 7."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Chapter 7

2 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2 Predicting Whether a Reaction Will Occur forces that drive a reaction formation of a solid formation of water transfer of electrons formation of a gas when chemicals (dissolved in water) are mixed and one of these 4 things can occur, the reaction will generally happen

3 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 Precipitation Reactions in all precipitation reactions, the ions of one substance are exchanged with the ions of another substance when their aqueous solutions are mixed At least one of the products formed is insoluble in water KI(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) KNO 3 (aq) + AgI s K+K+ I-I- Ag + NO 3 - K+K+ Ag I

4 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 Figure 7.1: The precipitation reaction that occurs when yellow potassium chormate, K 2 CrO 4 (aq), is mixed with a colorless barium nitrate solution, Ba(NO 3 ) 2 (aq)

5 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 Dissociation ionic compounds –metal + nonmetal (Type I & II) –metal + polyatomic anion –polyatomic cation + anion when ionic compounds dissolve in water the anions and cations are separated from each other; this is called dissociation we know that ionic compounds dissociate when they dissolve in water because the solution conducts electricity

6 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 6 Dissociation potassium chloride dissociates in water into potassium cations and chloride anions KCl(aq) = K + (aq) + Cl - (aq) copper(II) sulfate dissociates in water into copper(II) cations and sulfate anions CuSO 4 (aq) = Cu +2 (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq) K+K+ Cl - K Cl Cu +2 SO 4 2- Cu SO 4

7 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 7 Figure 7.2: Electrical conductivity of aqueous solutions

8 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 8 Dissociation potassium sulfate dissociates in water into potassium cations and sulfate anions K 2 SO 4 (aq) = 2 K + (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq) K+K+ SO 4 2- K+K+ KK SO 4

9 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 9 Process for Predicting the Products of a Precipitation Reaction Determine what ions each aqueous reactant has Exchange Ions (+) ion from one reactant with (-) ion from other Balance Charges of combined ions to get formula of each product Balance the Equation count atoms Determine Solubility of Each Product in Water solubility rules if product is insoluble or slightly soluble, it will precipitate

10 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 10 Solubility Rules Most compounds that contain NO 3 - ions are soluble Most compounds that contain Na +, K +, or NH 4 + ions are soluble Most compounds that contain Cl - ions are soluble, except AgCl, PbCl 2, and Hg 2 Cl 2 Most compounds that contain SO 4 2- ions are soluble, except BaSO 4, PbSO 4, CaSO 4 Most compounds that contain OH - ions are slightly soluble (will precipitate), except NaOH, KOH, are soluble and Ba(OH) 2, Ca(OH) 2 are moderately soluble Most compounds that contain S 2-, CO 3 2-, or PO 4 3- ions are slightly soluble (will precipitate)

11 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11 Figure 7.3: Solubilities of common compounds

12 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 12 Ionic Equations equations which describe the chemicals put into the water and the product molecules are called molecular equations KCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) KNO 3 (aq) + AgCl(s) equations which describe the actual ions and molecules in the solutions as well as the molecules of solid, liquid and gas not dissolved are called ionic equations K + (aq) + Cl - (aq) + Ag + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) K + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) + AgCl (s)

13 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13 Ionic Equations ions that are both reactants and products are called spectator ions K + (aq) + Cl - (aq) + Ag + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) K + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) + AgCl (s) an ionic equation in which the spectator ions are dropped is called a net ionic equation Cl - (aq) + Ag + (aq) AgCl (s)

14 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 14 Figure 7.4: Precipitation of silver chloride

15 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 15 How to Predict Precipitates When Solutions of Two Ionic Compounds Are Mixed

16 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16 Types of Equations for Reaction in Aqueous Solutions

17 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 17 Electrolytes electrolytes are substances whose aqueous solution is a conductor of electricity all electrolytes have ions dissolved in water in strong electrolytes, virtually all the molecules are dissociated into ions in nonelectrolytes, none of the molecules are dissociated into ions in weak electrolytes, a small percentage of the molecules are dissociated into ions

18 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 18 Figure 7.5: When gaseous HCl is dissolved in water, each molecule dissociates to produce H + and Cl - ions

19 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 19 Reactions that Form Water: Acids + Bases Acids all contain H + cations and an anion Bases all contain OH - anions and a cation when acids dissociate in water they release H + ions and their anions when bases dissociate in water they release OH - ions and their cations

20 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 20 Acid-Base Reactions in the reaction of an acid with a base, the H +1 from the acid combines with the OH -1 from the base to make water the cation from the base combines with the anion from the acid to make the salt acid + base salt + water H 2 SO 4 (aq) + Ca(OH) 2 (aq) CaSO 4 (aq) + 2 H 2 O(l) the net ionic equation for an Acid-Base reaction is always H + (aq) + OH - (aq) H 2 O(l)

21 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 21 Reactions of Metals with Nonmetals (Oxidation-Reduction) The metal loses electrons and becomes a cation –We call this process oxidation The nonmetal gains electrons and becomes an anion –We call this process reduction In the reaction, electrons are transferred from the metal to the nonmetal

22 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 22 Figure 7.6: The thermite reaction gives off so much heat that the iron formed is molten

23 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 23 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions All reactions that involve a transfer of one or more electrons are called oxidation- reduction reactions We say that the substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized and the substance that gains electrons in the reaction is reduced.

24 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 24 Predicting Products of Metal + Nonmetal Reactions metal + nonmetal ionic compound –ionic compounds always solids unless dissolved in water in the ionic compound the metal is now a cation in the ionic compound the nonmetal is now an anion to predict direct synthesis of metal + nonmetal ¬determine the charges on the cation and anion from their position on the Periodic Table ­determine numbers of cations and anions needed to have charges cancel ®balance the equation

25 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 25 Another Kind of Oxidation-Reduction Reaction Some reactions between two non-metals are also oxidation-reduction reaction Any reaction in which O 2 is a reactant or a product will be an oxidation-reduction reaction CH 4 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2 H 2 O(g) 2 SO 3 (g) 2 SO 2 (g) + O 2 (g)

26 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 26 Ways to Classify Reactions Reactions that involve solid formation are called precipitation reactions Reactions that involve water formation are called acid-base reactions Both precipitation reactions and acid-base reactions involve compounds exchanging ions, ion exchange reactions are called double displacement reactions

27 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 27 Figure 7.11: Classes of reactions

28 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 28 Double Displacement Reactions two ionic compounds exchange ions X Y (aq) + A B (aq) XB + AY reaction will not occur unless one of the products either (1) precipitates, (2) or is water

29 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 29 Ways to Classify Reactions Reactions that involve electron transfer are called oxidation-reduction reactions –Metals + Nonmetal –O 2 as a reactant or product Reactions that occur in aqueous solution because one of the products is a gas are called gas forming reactions NaHCO 3 (aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l)

30 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 30 Ways to Classify Reactions Reactions that involve one ion being transferred from one cation to another are called single replacement reaction X Y + A X + A Y Zn(s) + 2 HCl(aq) ZnCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 2 Al(s) 2 Fe(s) + Al 2 O 3 (s)

31 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 31 Other Ways to Classify Reactions Reactions in which O 2 (g) is reacted with a carbon compound are called Combustion Reactions Combustion reactions release a lot of energy Combustion reactions are a subclass of Oxidation- Reduction reactions Combustion of carbon compounds produces CO 2 (g) Combustion of compounds that contain hydrogen produces H 2 O(g) C 3 H 8 (g) + 5 O 2 (g) 3 CO 2 (g) + 4 H 2 O(g)

32 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 32 Other Ways to Classify Reactions Reactions in which chemicals combine to make one product are called Synthesis Reactions Metal + Nonmetal reactions can be classified as Synthesis Reactions 2 Na(s) + Cl 2 (g) 2 NaCl(s) Reactions of Metals or Nonmetals with O 2 can be classified as Synthesis Reactions N 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2 NO(g) These two types of Synthesis Reactions are also subclasses of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

33 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 33 Other Ways to Classify Reactions Reactions in which one reactant breaks down into smaller molecules are called Decomposition Reactions Generally initiated by addition of energy –Addition of electric current or heat Opposite of a Synthesis Reaction 2 NaCl(l) 2 Na(l) + Cl 2 (g) electric current

34 Copyright©2000 by houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 34 Figure 7.12: Summary of classes of reactions


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