Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Study Sheet for Chapter 2 Honors Biology

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Study Sheet for Chapter 2 Honors Biology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Study Sheet for Chapter 2 Honors Biology

EXAMPLE: Surface tension caused by the pulling in of H-bonds of the water molecules. This creates a “film” on the surface of the water. This allows small insects to walk on the surface of water.

3 #1 Formula = abbreviation of a compound
Molecule = 2 or more atoms chemically bonded (can be same or different) Atom = 1 unit – smallest unit of an element Formula = abbreviation of a compound Compound = 2 or more different elements bonded together chemically Symbol = abbreviation of an element Element = 1 kind of substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means – listed on Periodic table

4 #2 59 Co 27 Mass number = 59 Atomic number = 27 Number of protons = 27
Number of electrons = 27 Number of neutrons = 32

5 #3 Trace elements Appear in very small amounts Milligrams (mg)

6 #4 Radioactive isotope Breaks down spontaneously
(gives off energy and particles, can be detected on a PET scan) Break down to their more stable form EX: C-14 to C-12

7 #5 Why do atoms join to form compounds?

8 #6 IONS and ISOTOPES IONS = differ in the number of electrons (charged atoms) ISOTOPES = differ in the number of neutrons (different mass numbers)

9 #7 Electrons in covalent and ionic bonds
COVALENT = electrons are shared IONIC = electrons are transferred (lost/gained)

10 #8 Solute and solvent and solution
Water = solvent – does the dissolving (larger amount) Sugar = solute –being dissolved Both = solution

11 #9 H-bonding When water reaches 4oC and below H-bonds form an open lattice (less dense) For surface tension, H-bonds pull the water molecules inward to form a “film”

12 #10 IN ORDER (strongest to weakest): COVALENT IONIC H-bonding
Van der Waals

13 #11 Buffers Minimize the change in pH by adding extra H+ and OH-

14 #12 ACIDS put H+ ions into solution (H+ donors)
BASES put OH- ions into solution (OH- donors)

15 #13 Water has high heat of vaporization (slow to heat and also slow to cool) So the coastal area temperatures would change less rapidly than inland areas

16 #14 Strong 1-3 Weak 4-6 pH 3 = [H+] 10-3
ACIDS BASES Strong 1-3 Weak 4-6 pH 3 = [H+] 10-3 pH 4 is 100 X’s the H+ ions than pH 6 Strong 11-14 Weak 8-10 pH 11 = 10-11

17 #15 Electrons fill 2 8

18 #16 ACID PRECIPITATION pH lower than 5.2


20 #18 H+ ions surround Cl- OH- ions surround Na+

21 #19 REACTANTS PRODUCTS Left of arrow right of arrow

22 #20

23 #20 Elements that are located in the same column behave more alike chemically

24 #21 Polar Covalent = unequal sharing of e-
Nonpolar Covalent = equal sharing of e-

25 #22 Bohr Model

26 #23 H-H O-H NaCl

27 #24 UNIQUE PROPERTIES OF WATER 1. H-bonding 2. Polarity

28 #25 C H O N Trace element in mg

29 #25 Fe I F used to prevent tooth decay
Used by RBC to carry oxygen in hemoglobin I used to prevent blindness and have proper use of thyroid F used to prevent tooth decay

30 #26 Elements have different numbers of protons Elements have different numbers of electrons (form different ions and different bonds)

31 #26 Same column have same outer shell (valence) electrons

32 #27 ISOTOPES OF AN ELEMENT Same number of protons (same atomic number)
Different number of neutrons (different mass number)

33 #28 Valence electrons (fill inner shell first) 2 8

34 #29 If atomic number 8 Can form two more bonds

35 #30 BOTH INTERMOLECULAR Van der Waals = are momentary
very weak forces of attraction between nonpolar molecules resulting from uneven electron distributions (EX: gecko hairs on feet and glass) H-bonding = forces between H and F, O, or N

36 #31 Cations = (+) ions Anions = (-) ions

37 #32 You need to break the H-bonds to vaporize (form a gas)- takes extra time You need to form H-bonds to form ice – takes extra time

38 #33

39 Determine the pH If [H+] = 10-4 = pH 4 [OH-] = 10-10

40 #34 Mg Cl- K+ I- Ca P-3

41 #35 Ca = calcium C = carbon Co = cobalt
REVIEW YOUR ELEMENTS AND SYMBOLS: Ca = calcium C = carbon Co = cobalt

42 #36 EXAMPLE Why water makes a nice drop on wax paper:
Surface tension on the water. Strong cohesion of the water molecules Weak adhesion to the wax paper. Review blue sheet, water properties quiz and lab.

Download ppt "Study Sheet for Chapter 2 Honors Biology"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google