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Study Sheet for Chapter 2 Honors Biology. EXTENDED RESPONSE TIPS: EXAMPLE: Surface tension caused by the pulling in of H- bonds of the water molecules.

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Presentation on theme: "Study Sheet for Chapter 2 Honors Biology. EXTENDED RESPONSE TIPS: EXAMPLE: Surface tension caused by the pulling in of H- bonds of the water molecules."— Presentation transcript:

1 Study Sheet for Chapter 2 Honors Biology

2 EXTENDED RESPONSE TIPS: EXAMPLE: Surface tension caused by the pulling in of H- bonds of the water molecules. This creates a “film” on the surface of the water. This allows small insects to walk on the surface of water.

3 #1 Atom = 1 unit – smallest unit of an element Symbol = abbreviation of an element Element = 1 kind of substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means – listed on Periodic table Molecule = 2 or more atoms chemically bonded (can be same or different) Formula = abbreviation of a compound Compound = 2 or more different elements bonded together chemically

4 #2 59 Co 27 Mass number = 59 Atomic number = 27 Number of protons = 27 Number of electrons = 27 Number of neutrons = 32

5 #3 Trace elements Appear in very small amounts Milligrams (mg)

6 #4 Radioactive isotope Breaks down spontaneously (gives off energy and particles, can be detected on a PET scan) Break down to their more stable form EX: C-14 to C-12

7 #5 Why do atoms join to form compounds? TO FILL THEIR OUTER ELECTRON SHELL

8 #6 IONS and ISOTOPES IONS = differ in the number of electrons (charged atoms) ISOTOPES = differ in the number of neutrons (different mass numbers)

9 #7 Electrons in covalent and ionic bonds COVALENT = electrons are shared IONIC = electrons are transferred (lost/gained)

10 #8 Solute and solvent and solution Water = solvent – does the dissolving (larger amount) Sugar = solute – being dissolved Both = solution

11 #9 H-bonding When water reaches 4 o C and below H-bonds form an open lattice (less dense) For surface tension, H-bonds pull the water molecules inward to form a “film”

12 #10 IN ORDER (strongest to weakest): COVALENT IONIC H-bonding Van der Waals

13 #11 Buffers Minimize the change in pH by adding extra H+ and OH-

14 #12 ACIDS put H+ ions into solution (H+ donors) BASES put OH- ions into solution (OH- donors)

15 #13 Water has high heat of vaporization (slow to heat and also slow to cool) So the coastal area temperatures would change less rapidly than inland areas

16 #14 ACIDS Strong 1-3 Weak 4-6 pH 3 = [H+] pH 4 is 100 X’s the H+ ions than pH 6 BASES Strong Weak 8-10 pH 11 =

17 #15 Electrons fill 2 8

18 #16 ACID PRECIPITATION pH lower than 5.2

19 #17 COVALENT BONDS

20 #18 H+ ions surround Cl- OH- ions surround Na+

21 #19 REACTANTS PRODUCTS Left of arrow right of arrow

22 #20

23 Elements that are located in the same column behave more alike chemically

24 #21 Polar Covalent = unequal sharing of e- Nonpolar Covalent = equal sharing of e-

25 #22 Bohr Model

26 #23 H-H O-H NaCl

27 #24 UNIQUE PROPERTIES OF WATER 1. H-bonding 2. Polarity

28 #25 C H O N Trace element in mg

29 #25 Fe Used by RBC to carry oxygen in hemoglobin I used to prevent blindness and have proper use of thyroid F used to prevent tooth decay

30 #26 Elements have different numbers of protons Elements have different numbers of electrons (form different ions and different bonds)

31 #26 Same column have same outer shell (valence) electrons

32 #27 ISOTOPES OF AN ELEMENT Same number of protons (same atomic number) Different number of neutrons (different mass number)

33 #28 Valence electrons (fill inner shell first) 2 8

34 #29 If atomic number 8 Can form two more bonds

35 #30 BOTH INTERMOLECULAR Van der Waals = are momentary very weak forces of attraction between nonpolar molecules resulting from uneven electron distributions (EX: gecko hairs on feet and glass) H-bonding = forces between H and F, O, or N

36 #31 Cations = (+) ions Anions = (-) ions

37 #32 You need to break the H-bonds to vaporize (form a gas)- takes extra time You need to form H-bonds to form ice – takes extra time

38 #33

39 Determine the pH [H+] [OH-] = If [H+] = = pH 4 [OH-] =

40 #34 Mg-2 Cl- K+ I- Ca+2 P-3

41 #35 REVIEW YOUR ELEMENTS AND SYMBOLS: Ca = calcium C = carbon Co = cobalt

42 #36 EXAMPLE Why water makes a nice drop on wax paper: Surface tension on the water. Strong cohesion of the water molecules Weak adhesion to the wax paper. Review blue sheet, water properties quiz and lab.


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