2Matter What is it? What are the 3 states? Anything that takes up space, has mass, and made up of atoms.What are the 3 states?
3Energy What is it? Invisible magic? No! Invisible? Yes! It is the ability to put matter into motion.“INVISIBLE POWER”
4Kinetic Energy Vs. Potential Energy Potential: Stored EnergyKinetic: Energy of motion
5How do we obtain Energy?We get energy by eating food which gets broken down in our stomach into useable components. These smaller parts keep getting broken down creating ATP which later can be broken down into ADP releasing energy.Energy is stored as ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
6Energy ConversionsChemical Energy is converted in the body (breaking down food) to mechanical energy(i.e. muscle movement) and electrical energy (i.e. nerve impulses)
7Energy Conversion Inefficiency Heat is given off as “Thermal Energy "during energy conversations.Why is this good?This heat that is given off allows us to be warm blooded animals and maintain our body temperature.Helps to speed up other chemical reactions in the body.
8Composition of MatterAll matter is composed of a limited number of elements (~112 known and 6 extremely rare man made radioactive elements)Elements are composed of identical atoms. Atoms of each element are different.
9Elements Atoms Each element is composed of many identical atoms. Video ClipAtomsNucleus (Protons (+) and Neutrons (n0))Electrons (-) (found in electron cloud around nucleus)
10Atomic Structure Atoms Nucleus (Protons (+) and Neutrons (n0)) Electrons (-) (found in electron cloud around nucleus)
11Major Elements in the Human Body Oxygen: 65% - Essential for breathing, breakdown of sugar (glucose) and other food fuels allowing for ATP to be released.Carbon: 18.5% - Major component of all our organic matter (carbohydrates, lipids (fats), proteins, and nucleic acids (DNA))Hydrogen: 9.5% - Found in organic matter and influences pHNitrogen: 3.2% - Found in proteins and nucleic acids.
12Other Elements:Phosphorous: Forms part of ATP and ADP, Found in bones, teeth, and nucleic acids.Sodium: Important for water balance and nerve impulses and muscle contractions.Calcium: Important for bones, teeth, muscle contraction, neural transmission, and blood clotting.Iron: Important for oxygen uptake in the blood by hemoglobin.
13IsotopesHave the same number of protons and electrons as their atom family but different number of neutrons.“Skinny” atoms – less neutrons“Overweight” atoms – extra neutronsThe heavier isotopes become unstable = radioactive isotopes
14Radioactive IsotopesInvolve the ejection of particles from the atoms' nucleus and are damaging to living cells.Used in minute amounts to tag biological molecules to be followed throughout the body for medical diagnosis and treatment.
15Molecules2 or more of the same atom combine together
16Compounds2 or more different atoms bind together.
17Ionic BondBonds formed between atoms when electrons are completely transferred from one atom to the to the other creating:CHARGED ATOMS = IONS
18Covalent BondsBonds formed when atoms share electrons to become stable.
19Hydrogen BondsVery weak bonds between hydrogen and oxygen (or nitrogen) atom.Creates water’s special surface tension
20Synthesis ReactionsWhen atoms or molecules come together to create a bigger more complex molecule.Synthesis= Create
21Decomposition Reaction The breakdown of a molecule into smaller molecules, atoms, or ions.
22Exchange ReactionsWhen atoms or molecules switch partners.
23Are chemical reactions reversible? Most chemical reactions are reversible. New bonds can be broken and rearranged to go back to the original formula.Double arrow represents a reversible reaction.
24Organic Molecules VS. Inorganic Molecules Organic Molecules = Carbon containing moleculesEx: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic AcidsInorganic Molecules= Non-carbon containing moleculesTypically small moleculesEx: Salts, water, and many (not all ) acids and bases
25Water Accounts for 2/3 of the bodies weight Has very special properties:High Heat CapacityPolarityChemical ReactivityCushioning
26High Heat CapacityIt can absorb and release large amounts of heat before it’s temperature changes.Why would this be a good thing for our body temperature?Water’s high heat capacity allows us to withstand intense sun exposure, very cold winter winds, or from heat generated from internal reactions.
27Polarity/Solvent Properties Water is the “UNIVERSAL SOLVENT”Solvent = liquid or gas in which smaller amounts of substances known as solutes can be dissolved or suspended.Solutes can be: gases, liquids, or solidsHow does this affect us?Molecules cannot chemically react unless in solution (in water)All of our necessary chemical reactions occur in water!!!Water also transports gases and wastes such as in our blood and between cells.Special lubricants that allow our bones to move within joints need water.
28Chemical ReactivityWater is needed to breakdown large molecules such as carbohydrates in our foods through hydrolysis.Hydrolysis= addition of water to breakdown
29Cushioning Water serves a protective function. Fluid around our brain (cerebrospinal fluid) cushions our brain from trauma.Amniotic fluid- surrounds a developing baby.
30SaltsA salt is a IONIC compound containing two ions a cation (H+) and an anion (OH-) that are joined together like magnets.Vital to body functions such as nerve impulses, muscle contractions, and oxygen transport in blood by hemoglobin.When salts are dissolved in water they dissociate into electrolytes.Ions serve as electrolytes which are substances that can conduct electricity.Without electrolytes virtually nothing in the body would work.
31Acids and BasesAcids and bases are also electrolytes since they also dissociate in water.Acids: Proton DonorsHCl H Cl-Hydochloric hydrogen ion chlorine ionacidBases: Proton Acceptors (OH- donor)NaOH Na OH-Sodium hydroxide sodium ion hydoxideProton
32pH Scale Based on the number of hydrogen ions in solution. The LOWER the pH the more ACIDIC it ispH of 7 is Neutral (Distilled Water)The HIGHER the pH the less ACIDIC or more BASIC it is.
33BuffersSince living cells are extremely sensitive to slight pH changes, BUFFERS are used to help regulate pH changes along with the kidneys and the lungs.Normally blood pH varies fromHowever, if blood pH were to change even a few tenths of a pH unit from these limits death becomes a real possibility.Bicarbonate (Buffer in blood)