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Chemistry, Part I Human Anatomy and Physiology I Oklahoma City Community College Dennis Anderson
I. Matter and Energy Slide 2.1 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A. Matter – anything that occupies space and has mass (weight) B. Energy – the ability to do work 1. Chemical 2. Electrical 3.Mechanical 4.Radiant
Matter Anything that takes up space and has mass
Elements Carbon (C) Nitrogen (N) Oxygen (O) Hydrogen (H) One Kind of Matter The Fundamental units of matter 96% of the body is made from four elements
Compound Two or more elements combined together Carbon Dioxide Sodium Chloride Water
Atom Minute particles that make up matter
Atomic Model Proton Neutron Electron
Atomic Structure Slide 2.3 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nucleus Protons (p + ) Neutrons (n 0 ) Outside of nucleus Electrons (e - ) Figure 2.1
Atomic Number Hydrogen = 1 Carbon = 6 Oxygen = 8 Number of Protons
Protons = Electrons
Atomic Mass Number Number of Protons and Neutrons
Hydrogen Atomic Number = 1 Atomic Mass Number = 1
First Energy Level Two Electrons Maximum First Energy Level
Second Energy Level Eight Maximum Second Energy Level
Third Energy Level Stable with Eight Electrons Third Energy Level
Inert Elements Slide 2.11 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Have complete valence shells and are stable Rule of 8s Shell 1 has 2 electrons Shell 2 has 8 electrons 10 = 2 + 8 Shell 3 has 18 electrons 18 = 2 + 8 + 8 Figure 2.4a
Reactive Elements Slide 2.12 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Valence shells are not full and are unstable Tend to gain, lose, or share electrons Allows for bond formation, which produces stable valence Figure 2.4b
Carbon Atomic Number = 6 Atomic Mass Number = 12
Carbon Atom 6 + 6 0
Oxygen Atomic Number = 8 Atomic Mass Number = 16
Oxygen Atom 8 + 8 0
Isotope An atom of an element with a different number of neutrons than other atoms of the same element
Isotopes of Carbon Carbon 12 6 Neutrons Carbon 13 7 Neutrons Carbon 14 8 Neutrons Carbon 15 9 Neutrons Each Carbon has 6 protons
Atomic Weight Average of the mass numbers of all the isotopes of an element Atomic Weight of Carbon = 12.01 Average Mass Numbers of Carbon 12,13,14 and 15
Radioactive Isotopes Break down at a constant rate – Half Life
Uses for Isotopes Carbon 14 for dating the age of skeletons PET scan Iodine isotope for thyroid studies Cobalt isotope for cancer treatment
Sodium Atomic Number = 11 Atomic Mass Number = 23
Sodium Atom 11 + 12 0
Chlorine Atomic Number = 17 Atomic Mass Number = 35
Chlorine Atom 17 + 18 0
11 + 12 0
Sodium Ion Na + Lost an Electron 11 + 12 0
Chloride Ion Cl - 17 + 18 0 Gained an Electron
Ion An Atom or Molecule With a Charge Formed by -Gaining electrons -Losing electrons
Ionic Bond Cl - Na + Chemical bond formed by the attraction of opposite charges
Chemical Bond Force that holds atoms together in a molecule
Anion: Ion with a - Charge Cation: Ion with a + Charge Regulate water balance Regulate acid-base balance Form essential minerals
Molecule Two or More Atoms (Ions) Joined Together Cl - Na + Sodium Chloride
Covalent Bond Formed by Sharing Electrons
Covalent Bond HH
Four Covalent Bonds in Carbon
Structural Formula H C H H H
Carbon Chain C H H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H H
Water Molecule + +
Some Hydrogens Leave + +
Electron Stays with Water + + Electron
+ + Hydroxide Ion Hydrogen Ion
Water HOH H+H+ OH -
Water The number of Equals the number of H+H+ OH -
Acid Chemical That Releases Excess Hydrogen Ions HCl Cl - + H+H+
Base OH - + Na + Chemical That Releases Excess Hydroxide Ions NaOH
pH Scale 0 123 7 865 4 14 11 109 13 12 OH - H+H+
0 123 7 865 4 14 11 109 13 12 Hydrogen Ions =Hydroxide Ions
0 123 7 865 4 14 11 109 13 12 BaseAcid
0 123 7 865 4 14 11 109 13 12 Stomach SkinBlood
End of Part I
ELAINE N. MARIEB EIGHTH EDITION 2 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by.
Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slides 2.1 – 2.20 Seventh Edition Elaine.
PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing.
Have out something with which to write. Hope your fingers/hands are ready to do some writtin’!
Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology Fifth edition Seeley, Stephens and Tate Slide 2.1 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin.
Anatomy & Physiology Basic Chemistry Chapter 2. Matter and Energy Matter—anything that occupies space and has mass (weight) Energy—the ability to do work.
Matter and Energy Matter—anything that occupies space and has mass (weight) Energy—the ability to do work Chemical Electrical Mechanical Radiant.
Basic Chemistry. Matter and Energy Matter—anything that occupies space and has mass (weight) Matter—anything that occupies space and has mass (weight)
Human Anatomy & Physiology FIFTH EDITION Elaine N. Marieb PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Vince Austin Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.
Slides 1 to 74 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides prepared by Janice Meeking, Mount Royal College C H A P T E R Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 Chemistry Comes Alive:
Chapter 3: Part I Biochemistry. Matter: Anything that has mass and takes up space – can be solid, liquid or gas Atom: Smallest unit of matter that cannot.
The Chemistry of Life Some Simple Chemistry, Water.
Biology I Chapter 2-1 Of Atoms and Molecules: Chemistry Basics.
CH 2 THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE 2.1 The Nature of Matter.
Chapter 6.1 Biology. Intro to the Chemistry Your life DEPENDS on chemistry! 1.When you inhale oxygen, your body uses it in chemical reactions! 2.When.
Chapter 2. Matter Consists of Elements Elements cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means Atoms are unique building blocks for each element Atomic.
Chapter 2 Review Big Ideas You Should Know. Concept 2.1: Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called compounds Organisms.
2.1 Atoms, Ions, and Molecules KEY CONCEPT All living things are based on atoms and their interactions.
Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A Refresher Seventh Edition Elaine N.
BASIC CHEMISTRY. An understanding of an atom’s structure is required to understand how chemical bonds form. The atom is the basic building block of all.
The Chemistry of Life Or Biochemistry Atoms, Molecules, Compounds, Chemical Bonds.
The Chemistry of Life Life is, even at the smallest level, an extremely sophisticated form of CHEMISTRY.
Atoms, Ions, and Molecules
Biology – Unit 3. Put the following words in order from smallest to largest: ◦ Cell, atom, organelle, subatomic particle, molecule, tissues, organism,
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts and Connections, Fifth Edition – Campbell,
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides Prepared by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College C H A P T E R 2 Basic.
Chapter # 2 – The Chemistry of Life I. The Nature of Matter -Life depends on Chemistry….Chemical reactions in our body keep us alive & all things are made.
1. Review- What is a compound Apply Concepts- Water (H 2 O) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) both consists of hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Explain why they.
BIOLOGY CONCEPTS & CONNECTIONS Fourth Edition Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Neil A. Campbell Jane B. Reece Lawrence.
Lecture 1.1 Refresh your high school chemistry CS882, Fall 2006.
The Chemical Compounds of Life Basic chemistry. Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space is matter. There are about 103 naturally occurring different.
The Chemical Context of Life. Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called compounds Organisms are composed of matter.
CHEMISTRY The Building Blocks of Biology. Matter Anything that has mass and occupies space. Solid, Liquid, Gas.
Matter and Energy Slide 2.1 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings ____________ – anything that occupies space and has.
Section Objectives: Relate the structure of an atom to the identity of elements. Relate the formation of covalent and ionic chemical bonds to the stability.
Introduction to Chemistry Honors Biology Ms. Kim
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