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Chemistry, Part I Human Anatomy and Physiology I Oklahoma City Community College Dennis Anderson
I. Matter and Energy Slide 2.1 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A. Matter – anything that occupies space and has mass (weight) B. Energy – the ability to do work 1. Chemical 2. Electrical 3.Mechanical 4.Radiant
Matter Anything that takes up space and has mass
Elements Carbon (C) Nitrogen (N) Oxygen (O) Hydrogen (H) One Kind of Matter The Fundamental units of matter 96% of the body is made from four elements
Compound Two or more elements combined together Carbon Dioxide Sodium Chloride Water
Atom Minute particles that make up matter
Atomic Model Proton Neutron Electron
Atomic Structure Slide 2.3 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nucleus Protons (p + ) Neutrons (n 0 ) Outside of nucleus Electrons (e - ) Figure 2.1
Atomic Number Hydrogen = 1 Carbon = 6 Oxygen = 8 Number of Protons
Protons = Electrons
Atomic Mass Number Number of Protons and Neutrons
Hydrogen Atomic Number = 1 Atomic Mass Number = 1
First Energy Level Two Electrons Maximum First Energy Level
Second Energy Level Eight Maximum Second Energy Level
Third Energy Level Stable with Eight Electrons Third Energy Level
Inert Elements Slide 2.11 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Have complete valence shells and are stable Rule of 8s Shell 1 has 2 electrons Shell 2 has 8 electrons 10 = Shell 3 has 18 electrons 18 = Figure 2.4a
Reactive Elements Slide 2.12 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Valence shells are not full and are unstable Tend to gain, lose, or share electrons Allows for bond formation, which produces stable valence Figure 2.4b
Carbon Atomic Number = 6 Atomic Mass Number = 12
Oxygen Atomic Number = 8 Atomic Mass Number = 16
Isotope An atom of an element with a different number of neutrons than other atoms of the same element
Isotopes of Carbon Carbon 12 6 Neutrons Carbon 13 7 Neutrons Carbon 14 8 Neutrons Carbon 15 9 Neutrons Each Carbon has 6 protons
Atomic Weight Average of the mass numbers of all the isotopes of an element Atomic Weight of Carbon = Average Mass Numbers of Carbon 12,13,14 and 15
Radioactive Isotopes Break down at a constant rate – Half Life
Uses for Isotopes Carbon 14 for dating the age of skeletons PET scan Iodine isotope for thyroid studies Cobalt isotope for cancer treatment
Sodium Atomic Number = 11 Atomic Mass Number = 23
Chlorine Atomic Number = 17 Atomic Mass Number = 35
Sodium Ion Na + Lost an Electron
Chloride Ion Cl Gained an Electron
Ion An Atom or Molecule With a Charge Formed by -Gaining electrons -Losing electrons
Ionic Bond Cl - Na + Chemical bond formed by the attraction of opposite charges
Chemical Bond Force that holds atoms together in a molecule
Anion: Ion with a - Charge Cation: Ion with a + Charge Regulate water balance Regulate acid-base balance Form essential minerals
Molecule Two or More Atoms (Ions) Joined Together Cl - Na + Sodium Chloride
Covalent Bond Formed by Sharing Electrons
Covalent Bond HH
Four Covalent Bonds in Carbon
Structural Formula H C H H H
Carbon Chain C H H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H H
Water Molecule + +
Some Hydrogens Leave + +
Electron Stays with Water + + Electron
+ + Hydroxide Ion Hydrogen Ion
Water HOH H+H+ OH -
Water The number of Equals the number of H+H+ OH -
Acid Chemical That Releases Excess Hydrogen Ions HCl Cl - + H+H+
Base OH - + Na + Chemical That Releases Excess Hydroxide Ions NaOH
pH Scale OH - H+H+
Hydrogen Ions =Hydroxide Ions
End of Part I
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