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Chemistry, Part I Human Anatomy and Physiology I Oklahoma City Community College Dennis Anderson.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemistry, Part I Human Anatomy and Physiology I Oklahoma City Community College Dennis Anderson."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemistry, Part I Human Anatomy and Physiology I Oklahoma City Community College Dennis Anderson

2 I. Matter and Energy Slide 2.1 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A. Matter – anything that occupies space and has mass (weight) B. Energy – the ability to do work 1. Chemical 2. Electrical 3.Mechanical 4.Radiant

3 Matter Anything that takes up space and has mass

4 Elements Carbon (C) Nitrogen (N) Oxygen (O) Hydrogen (H) One Kind of Matter The Fundamental units of matter 96% of the body is made from four elements

5 Compound Two or more elements combined together Carbon Dioxide Sodium Chloride Water

6 Atom Minute particles that make up matter

7 Atomic Model Proton Neutron Electron

8 Atomic Structure Slide 2.3 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nucleus Protons (p + ) Neutrons (n 0 ) Outside of nucleus Electrons (e - ) Figure 2.1

9 Subatomic Particles

10 Atomic Number Hydrogen = 1 Carbon = 6 Oxygen = 8 Number of Protons

11 Protons = Electrons

12 Atomic Mass Number Number of Protons and Neutrons

13 Hydrogen Atomic Number = 1 Atomic Mass Number = 1

14 Hydrogen Atom

15 First Energy Level Two Electrons Maximum First Energy Level

16 Second Energy Level Eight Maximum Second Energy Level

17 Third Energy Level Stable with Eight Electrons Third Energy Level

18 Inert Elements Slide 2.11 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Have complete valence shells and are stable Rule of 8s Shell 1 has 2 electrons Shell 2 has 8 electrons 10 = Shell 3 has 18 electrons 18 = Figure 2.4a

19 Reactive Elements Slide 2.12 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Valence shells are not full and are unstable Tend to gain, lose, or share electrons Allows for bond formation, which produces stable valence Figure 2.4b

20 Carbon Atomic Number = 6 Atomic Mass Number = 12

21 Carbon Atom

22 Oxygen Atomic Number = 8 Atomic Mass Number = 16

23 Oxygen Atom

24 Isotope An atom of an element with a different number of neutrons than other atoms of the same element

25 Isotopes of Carbon Carbon 12 6 Neutrons Carbon 13 7 Neutrons Carbon 14 8 Neutrons Carbon 15 9 Neutrons Each Carbon has 6 protons

26 Atomic Weight Average of the mass numbers of all the isotopes of an element Atomic Weight of Carbon = Average Mass Numbers of Carbon 12,13,14 and 15

27 Radioactive Isotopes Break down at a constant rate – Half Life

28 Uses for Isotopes Carbon 14 for dating the age of skeletons PET scan Iodine isotope for thyroid studies Cobalt isotope for cancer treatment

29 Sodium Atomic Number = 11 Atomic Mass Number = 23

30 Sodium Atom

31 Chlorine Atomic Number = 17 Atomic Mass Number = 35

32 Chlorine Atom

33

34 Sodium Ion Na + Lost an Electron

35 Chloride Ion Cl Gained an Electron

36 Ion An Atom or Molecule With a Charge Formed by -Gaining electrons -Losing electrons

37 Ionic Bond Cl - Na + Chemical bond formed by the attraction of opposite charges

38 Chemical Bond Force that holds atoms together in a molecule

39 Anion: Ion with a - Charge Cation: Ion with a + Charge Regulate water balance Regulate acid-base balance Form essential minerals

40 Molecule Two or More Atoms (Ions) Joined Together Cl - Na + Sodium Chloride

41 Hydrogen Atoms

42 Electrons Shared

43 Covalent Bond Formed by Sharing Electrons

44 Covalent Bond HH

45 Four Covalent Bonds in Carbon

46 Structural Formula H C H H H

47 Carbon Chain C H H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H H

48 Water Molecule + +

49 Some Hydrogens Leave + +

50 Electron Stays with Water + + Electron

51 + + Hydroxide Ion Hydrogen Ion

52 Water HOH H+H+ OH -

53 Water The number of Equals the number of H+H+ OH -

54 Acid Chemical That Releases Excess Hydrogen Ions HCl Cl - + H+H+

55 Base OH - + Na + Chemical That Releases Excess Hydroxide Ions NaOH

56 pH Scale OH - H+H+

57 Hydrogen Ions =Hydroxide Ions

58 BaseAcid

59 Stomach SkinBlood

60 End of Part I


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