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Assyria, Babylon, and the Persian Empire The Fertile Crescent.

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Presentation on theme: "Assyria, Babylon, and the Persian Empire The Fertile Crescent."— Presentation transcript:

1 Assyria, Babylon, and the Persian Empire The Fertile Crescent

2 The Hebrews were driven out of their kingdoms by both the Assyrians and Babylonians

3 Assyria Asurbanipal Lasts over 2 centuries (850 to 605 BCE) Established one of the first libraries Very war-like people  Technology advancements related to military, much like the Hittites

4 Assyria Drove the Hebrews out of the Kingdom of Israel Intolerant of the religion of the Hebrews

5 Babylonia (a.k.a…) Eventually conquer the Assyrians (605-550 BCE) Establish second empire, led by King Nebuchadnezzar

6 Babylonia Drove the Hebrews from the kingdom of Judah  Jerusalem is sacked  Babylonian Captivity Intolerant of the faith and customs of the Hebrews

7 Enter Persia… Geography of Persia  Caspian Sea to Persian Gulf  Central Europe through Fertile Crescent Resources  Copper, lead, gold, silver  Lapis Many small kingdoms  Society is diverse  Includes Indo-European tribes, nomads and settled groups of people

8 By 486 BC, the Persians would control all of Mesopotamia and, in fact, all of the world from Macedon northeast of Greece to Egypt, from Palestine and the Arabian peninsula across Mesopotamia and all the way to India.

9 The Religions of Persia Zoroastrianism  Zoroaster, a Persian prophet  Struggle between evil and good, all are involved  Monotheistic: Ahura Mazda  Popular amongst Roman military  Parsis = modern name, Iran and India Judaism

10 Enter Cyrus 550 BCE, Cyrus conquers other kingdoms, unites them under one rule Expands empire from 550-539 BCE  Spans 2,000 miles west to east Uses diplomacy and military might Killed in battle with nomadic warriors in modern Pakistan

11 Persia Under Cyrus Advanced technology in weaponry, fuels the Persian military Rebuilding of Jerusalem  City and the temple Firm, fair rule Trade in natural resources  Trade helps fund conquests

12 Cyrus’ Legacies Religious Tolerance  Cyrus honored local religious customs  Welcomed Jews to return to Jerusalem Civility  Armies did not loot conquests  Kind toward conquered peoples “O man, I am Cyrus the son of Cambyses. I established the Persian Empire and was king of Asia. Do not begrudge my memorial”—Tomb enscription

13 After Cyrus Cyrus dies in 530 BCE Cambyses, son of Cyrus, takes power-8 year rule  Expands empire into Egypt  Less tolerant of other religions Darius seizes throne in 522 BCE  Crushes revolts  Expands empire into Greece, farther into Egypt, farther north into central Europe

14 The End of Persia? Darius and the Greeks Persian Wars: 490-479 BCE

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