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THE ASSYRIAN (700-612 BCE) AND PERSIAN (559- 360 BCE) EMPIRES Assyrian warship Assyrian King Ashurbanipal Hunting Lions.

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Presentation on theme: "THE ASSYRIAN (700-612 BCE) AND PERSIAN (559- 360 BCE) EMPIRES Assyrian warship Assyrian King Ashurbanipal Hunting Lions."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE ASSYRIAN ( BCE) AND PERSIAN ( BCE) EMPIRES Assyrian warship Assyrian King Ashurbanipal Hunting Lions

2 ASSYRIA ( BCE) Semitic-speaking people Used iron weapons to establish an empire Modern reproduction of Assyrian sword and shield

3 GOVERNMENT Ruled by kings with absolute power Well-organized Officials developed an efficient communication system Sargon II was the most important leader Assyrian winged bull from Sargon’s palace

4 ACCOMPLISHMENTS Created one of the world’s finest libraries at Nineveh: Ashurbanipal Established Aramaic as official language Effective military Assyrians had the first large armies equipped with iron weapons Used guerilla warfare, various siege tactics, and terror Infantry Assyrian battering ram

5 FALL OF THE ASSYRIAN EMPIRE The Chaldeans and Medes (people who lived in the east) joined together to conquer the Assyrians The fall of Nineveh preceded the fall of the Assyrian Empire They divided the empire Tablet detailing the destruction of Nineveh

6 BETWEEN THE EMPIRES Nebuchadnezzar Chaldean King Made Babylonia the strongest city in western Asia Famous hanging gardens Babylon fell to the Persians in 539 BC This marked the end of the Mesopotamian empires Persians adopted Assyrian military, political and artistic inventions Nebuchadnezzar faces off against King Zedekiah, the last king of Judah

7 PERSIA (559 BCE- 360 BCE) Persians Indo-Europeans who lived in modern Iran Mostly nomadic Eventually united by one family (Achaemenids) Contemporaries of Greeks Persian Empire was massive and grew larger than the prior Mesopotamian empires Established durable political and cultural traditions Fertile farmland and thriving trade

8 CYRUS THE GREAT – 559 BC Created a powerful state through warfare Indus River to Anatolia Demonstrated wisdom, compassion, and mercy Had a genuine respect for other cultures and practiced tolerance of local customs Respected temples Jews returned to Jerusalem

9 DARIUS – 521 BCE Bodyguard for Cambyses (son of Cyrus) and one of the Ten Thousand Immortals Conqueror Added part of India to Persian Empire Conquered Thrace (in Europe) Invaded Greek mainland Halted at the Battle of Marathon Created world’s largest empire at that time

10 Government Strengthened Divided empire into 20 ethnic provinces Satraps: Governor Homelands Created efficient communication system Like the Assyrians, Darius had a secret spy force – “King’s Eyes and Ears” The King had the power of life and death

11 Military Empire’s power depended upon the military Included standing army of professional soldiers cavalry and infantry Effective road system

12 XERXES Son of Darius Stopped rebellion in Egypt and attacked Greece Greece Battle of Thermopylae Battle of Salamis Was defeated and returned to Persia

13 ZOROASTRIANISM Persian religion Named after its prophet -- Zoroaster Tenets Proto-Monotheistic: Ahura Mazda Humans play a role in the struggle between good and evil Humans are given the freedom to choose between right and wrong Modern Parsis

14 FALL OF THE PERSIAN EMPIRE Kings became isolated and focused on obtaining luxuries, following Darius Struggles over the throne weakened the monarchy Family problems Eventually defeated by Alexander the Great Persian archer

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