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Emissions of N 2 O, CH 4 and NH 3 from agricultural sector in Slovakia activity data and methods development Bernard Šiška Slovak Agricultural University.

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Presentation on theme: "Emissions of N 2 O, CH 4 and NH 3 from agricultural sector in Slovakia activity data and methods development Bernard Šiška Slovak Agricultural University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Emissions of N 2 O, CH 4 and NH 3 from agricultural sector in Slovakia activity data and methods development Bernard Šiška Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovakia Bernard Šiška Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, Nitra, Slovakia

2 Emission sources in agriculture I.Cultivated soils – N 2 O, NH 3 II.Domestic livestock – CH 4, N 2 O, NH 3 I.Cultivated soils – N 2 O, NH 3 II.Domestic livestock – CH 4, N 2 O, NH 3

3 Basic sources of data used for GHG and NH 3 inventory Basic data: Green report of SR Green report of SR Statistical yearbook 1990 – 2004 Statistical yearbook 1990 – 2004 More detailed data: Annual census of domestic livestock on 31.XII. in Slovakia Annual census of domestic livestock on 31.XII. in Slovakia Census of sowing areas of field crops on 20.V. in Slovakia Census of sowing areas of field crops on 20.V. in Slovakia Definitive data on yields of field crops Definitive data on yields of field crops Basic data: Green report of SR Green report of SR Statistical yearbook 1990 – 2004 Statistical yearbook 1990 – 2004 More detailed data: Annual census of domestic livestock on 31.XII. in Slovakia Annual census of domestic livestock on 31.XII. in Slovakia Census of sowing areas of field crops on 20.V. in Slovakia Census of sowing areas of field crops on 20.V. in Slovakia Definitive data on yields of field crops Definitive data on yields of field crops

4 Number of domestic livestock in thousands in SR ( ) Number of domestic livestock in thousands in SR ( ) Year CattlePigsSheepGoatsPoultry Hor- ses Dairy cows Other Cattle Sows Piglets up to 20 kg Piglets up to 50 kg Youn g sows Fatte- ning pigs Lay- ing hens Broi- lers Other poultry

5 Acreage of agricultural crops in Slovakia ( ) Acreage of agricultural crops in Slovakia ( ) Crop CerealsWheat Ray Barley Oat Maize Potato Sugar beet Oil plants Vegetables Fodder crops on arable land Maize for silage Grasslands and other crops

6 Acreage of agricultural crops in Slovakia ( ) (N-fixing crops) Acreage of agricultural crops in Slovakia ( ) (N-fixing crops) Crop * N-fixing crops Pea Lens Bean Other legumi- nous plants Soybean Alfalfa Clover other fodder crops

7 Total inputs of N (t) from mineral fertilizers ( ) * (t) (t) * estimate

8 N 2 O emissions are defined as: Direct – N 2 O emissions from cultivated soils -N 2 O emissions from cultivated soils are of natural origin from microbial processes – nitrification and denitrification. Direct N 2 O emissions from cultivated soils depend on nitrogen inputs: synthetic fertilizers, animal excreta, crop residuals and symbiotic fixation of leguminous (Bouwman, 1990, cit. in IPCC 1996) Direct – N 2 O emissions from cultivated soils -N 2 O emissions from cultivated soils are of natural origin from microbial processes – nitrification and denitrification. Direct N 2 O emissions from cultivated soils depend on nitrogen inputs: synthetic fertilizers, animal excreta, crop residuals and symbiotic fixation of leguminous (Bouwman, 1990, cit. in IPCC 1996) Animal Waste Management System – Animal Waste Management System – During storage of manures some part of nitrogen is lost in dependence on way of storage as well as duration of storage of animal excreta During storage of manures some part of nitrogen is lost in dependence on way of storage as well as duration of storage of animal excreta Indirect - This part of N 2 O emissions resulted from processes Indirect - This part of N 2 O emissions resulted from processes of atmospheric deposition of ammonia and NO x, as well as due to transformation of nitrogen from leaching and runoff losses Indirect - This part of N 2 O emissions resulted from processes Indirect - This part of N 2 O emissions resulted from processes of atmospheric deposition of ammonia and NO x, as well as due to transformation of nitrogen from leaching and runoff losses

9 Inputs Biogenic N inputs Symbiotic N fixation Non-symbiotic N fixation Techogenic N inputs Decomposition of N Mineral fertilizers Fertilizers from AWMS Outputs N in harvested part of crops Leaching N lost due to soil erosion N lost in gaseous fraction Ammonia volatilization N 2 O emissions Others Nitrogen balances in agricultural soils of Slovak Republic (kg N.ha -1.year -1 ) (Bielek, 1988) Nitrogen balances in agricultural soils of Slovak Republic (kg N.ha -1.year -1 ) (Bielek, 1988)

10 N 2 O - methods of estimation: Total N 2 O emissions in agricultural sector are given by direct emissions from cultivated soils and animal husbandry and indirect emissions from leaching and ammonia and nitrate depositions according to equation: Total N 2 O emissions in agricultural sector are given by direct emissions from cultivated soils and animal husbandry and indirect emissions from leaching and ammonia and nitrate depositions according to equation: N 2 O = N 2 O direct + N 2 O aWMS + N 2 O indirect [kg year -1 ] N 2 O = N 2 O direct + N 2 O aWMS + N 2 O indirect [kg year -1 ] where:N 2 O direct = N 2 O emissions form direct nitrogen inputs [kg.year -1 ] N 2 O AWMSs = N 2 O emissions from animal waste management systems [kg.year -1 ] N 2 O AWMSs = N 2 O emissions from animal waste management systems [kg.year -1 ] N 2 O indirect = indirect N 2 O emissions [kg N.year -1 ] Total N 2 O emissions in agricultural sector are given by direct emissions from cultivated soils and animal husbandry and indirect emissions from leaching and ammonia and nitrate depositions according to equation: Total N 2 O emissions in agricultural sector are given by direct emissions from cultivated soils and animal husbandry and indirect emissions from leaching and ammonia and nitrate depositions according to equation: N 2 O = N 2 O direct + N 2 O aWMS + N 2 O indirect [kg year -1 ] N 2 O = N 2 O direct + N 2 O aWMS + N 2 O indirect [kg year -1 ] where:N 2 O direct = N 2 O emissions form direct nitrogen inputs [kg.year -1 ] N 2 O AWMSs = N 2 O emissions from animal waste management systems [kg.year -1 ] N 2 O AWMSs = N 2 O emissions from animal waste management systems [kg.year -1 ] N 2 O indirect = indirect N 2 O emissions [kg N.year -1 ]

11 N 2 O - methods of estimation: Direct N 2 O emissions from cultivated soils are calculated according to equation: Direct N 2 O emissions from cultivated soils are calculated according to equation: N 2 O DIRECT = (F SN + F AW + F BN + F CR ) x EF 1 [kg.year -1 ] N 2 O DIRECT = (F SN + F AW + F BN + F CR ) x EF 1 [kg.year -1 ] where:N 2 O DIRECT = direct N 2 O emissions from cultivated soils EF 1 = emission coefficient for direct N 2 O emissions (tab. 2.7.) EF 1 = emission coefficient for direct N 2 O emissions (tab. 2.7.) F SN = nitrogen in synthetic fertilizers reduced by NH 3 and NO x emissions [kg.year -1 ] F AW = nitrogen in fertilizers from animal husbandry reduced by NH 3 and NO x emissions [kg.year -1 ] F BN = nitrogen from symbiotic fixation of leguminous crops [kg.year -1 ] F CR = nitrogen from crop residuals [kg.year -1 ] Direct N 2 O emissions from cultivated soils are calculated according to equation: Direct N 2 O emissions from cultivated soils are calculated according to equation: N 2 O DIRECT = (F SN + F AW + F BN + F CR ) x EF 1 [kg.year -1 ] N 2 O DIRECT = (F SN + F AW + F BN + F CR ) x EF 1 [kg.year -1 ] where:N 2 O DIRECT = direct N 2 O emissions from cultivated soils EF 1 = emission coefficient for direct N 2 O emissions (tab. 2.7.) EF 1 = emission coefficient for direct N 2 O emissions (tab. 2.7.) F SN = nitrogen in synthetic fertilizers reduced by NH 3 and NO x emissions [kg.year -1 ] F AW = nitrogen in fertilizers from animal husbandry reduced by NH 3 and NO x emissions [kg.year -1 ] F BN = nitrogen from symbiotic fixation of leguminous crops [kg.year -1 ] F CR = nitrogen from crop residuals [kg.year -1 ]

12 N 2 O - methods of estimation: Some part of nitrogen in applied synthetic fertilizers is lost due to volatilization of NH 3 and N-NO x transformation. Synthetic fertilizers loss up to 10% and fertilizers of animal origin up to 20% of nitrogen (Bielek, 1998, Asman, 1992, ECOTEC) and so only 90% of nitrogen in synthetic fertilizers and 80% nitrogen in animal wastes are available for next N conversion into N 2 O. Some part of nitrogen in applied synthetic fertilizers is lost due to volatilization of NH 3 and N-NO x transformation. Synthetic fertilizers loss up to 10% and fertilizers of animal origin up to 20% of nitrogen (Bielek, 1998, Asman, 1992, ECOTEC) and so only 90% of nitrogen in synthetic fertilizers and 80% nitrogen in animal wastes are available for next N conversion into N 2 O. F SN = N FERT x (1- Frac GASF ) [kg.year -1 ] F SN = N FERT x (1- Frac GASF ) [kg.year -1 ] where:N FERT = net nitrogen in applied synthetic fertilizers [kg.year -1 ] Frac GASF = gaseous fraction that volatilize from synthetic fertilizers as NH 3 or NO x Some part of nitrogen in applied synthetic fertilizers is lost due to volatilization of NH 3 and N-NO x transformation. Synthetic fertilizers loss up to 10% and fertilizers of animal origin up to 20% of nitrogen (Bielek, 1998, Asman, 1992, ECOTEC) and so only 90% of nitrogen in synthetic fertilizers and 80% nitrogen in animal wastes are available for next N conversion into N 2 O. Some part of nitrogen in applied synthetic fertilizers is lost due to volatilization of NH 3 and N-NO x transformation. Synthetic fertilizers loss up to 10% and fertilizers of animal origin up to 20% of nitrogen (Bielek, 1998, Asman, 1992, ECOTEC) and so only 90% of nitrogen in synthetic fertilizers and 80% nitrogen in animal wastes are available for next N conversion into N 2 O. F SN = N FERT x (1- Frac GASF ) [kg.year -1 ] F SN = N FERT x (1- Frac GASF ) [kg.year -1 ] where:N FERT = net nitrogen in applied synthetic fertilizers [kg.year -1 ] Frac GASF = gaseous fraction that volatilize from synthetic fertilizers as NH 3 or NO x

13 N 2 O - methods of estimation: N inputs from animal wastes (F AW ) are calculated according to equation: are calculated according to equation: N inputs from animal wastes (F AW ) are calculated according to equation: are calculated according to equation: F AW = N EX x (1- Frac GRAZ - Frac GASM ) [kg.year -1 ] F AW = N EX x (1- Frac GRAZ - Frac GASM ) [kg.year -1 ] where:N EX = net nitrogen in wastes from animal husbandry [kg N.year -1 ] Frac GRAZ = fraction of nitrogen from grazing of animals Frac GASM = fraction of nitrogen that volatilize as NH 3 or NO x N inputs from animal wastes (F AW ) are calculated according to equation: are calculated according to equation: N inputs from animal wastes (F AW ) are calculated according to equation: are calculated according to equation: F AW = N EX x (1- Frac GRAZ - Frac GASM ) [kg.year -1 ] F AW = N EX x (1- Frac GRAZ - Frac GASM ) [kg.year -1 ] where:N EX = net nitrogen in wastes from animal husbandry [kg N.year -1 ] Frac GRAZ = fraction of nitrogen from grazing of animals Frac GASM = fraction of nitrogen that volatilize as NH 3 or NO x

14 N 2 O - methods of estimation: N inputs from symbiotic fixation of leguminous crops (F BN ) are calculated according to growing areas and value of symbiotic fixation found in condition of SR - 26 kg N.ha -1 per year : N inputs from symbiotic fixation of leguminous crops (F BN ) are calculated according to growing areas and value of symbiotic fixation found in condition of SR - 26 kg N.ha -1 per year : F BN = 26 xSA BN [kg.year -1 ] F BN = 26 xSA BN [kg.year -1 ] where:SA BN = acreage of N-fixing crops N inputs from symbiotic fixation of leguminous crops (F BN ) are calculated according to growing areas and value of symbiotic fixation found in condition of SR - 26 kg N.ha -1 per year : N inputs from symbiotic fixation of leguminous crops (F BN ) are calculated according to growing areas and value of symbiotic fixation found in condition of SR - 26 kg N.ha -1 per year : F BN = 26 xSA BN [kg.year -1 ] F BN = 26 xSA BN [kg.year -1 ] where:SA BN = acreage of N-fixing crops

15 N 2 O - methods of estimation: Nitrogen in crop residuals according to categories of different crops were established on the base of results of field trial of Research Institute of Plant Production (tab. 2.7.) and growing areas of crops (tab. 2.6.) according to equation: Nitrogen in crop residuals according to categories of different crops were established on the base of results of field trial of Research Institute of Plant Production (tab. 2.7.) and growing areas of crops (tab. 2.6.) according to equation: F CR = CR T x %N B x SA T [t/ha] F CR = CR T x %N B x SA T [t/ha] where:CR T = crop residuals of crop T [t/ha] %N B = % N v 1kg of dry matter (tab. 2.7) SA T = sowing are of crop T [ha] (tab. 2.6) Nitrogen in crop residuals according to categories of different crops were established on the base of results of field trial of Research Institute of Plant Production (tab. 2.7.) and growing areas of crops (tab. 2.6.) according to equation: Nitrogen in crop residuals according to categories of different crops were established on the base of results of field trial of Research Institute of Plant Production (tab. 2.7.) and growing areas of crops (tab. 2.6.) according to equation: F CR = CR T x %N B x SA T [t/ha] F CR = CR T x %N B x SA T [t/ha] where:CR T = crop residuals of crop T [t/ha] %N B = % N v 1kg of dry matter (tab. 2.7) SA T = sowing are of crop T [ha] (tab. 2.6)

16 N 2 O - methods of estimation: N 2 O emissions from animal waste management system were calculated according to equation: N 2 O emissions from animal waste management system were calculated according to equation: N 2 O AWMS = [N (T) x N ex(T) x AWMS (T) xEF 3(AWMS) ] [kg.year -1 ] N 2 O AWMS = [N (T) x N ex(T) x AWMS (T) xEF 3(AWMS) ] [kg.year -1 ] where:N 2 O AWMS = N 2 O emissions for AWMS [kg.year -1 ] N (T) = number of animals in category (tab. 2.1) N ex(T) = N production in animal excreta pre head in category T [kg.year -1 ] AWMS (T) = % of animal waste management system in category of domestic livestock EF 3(AWMS) = emission coefficient for AWMS N 2 O emissions from animal waste management system were calculated according to equation: N 2 O emissions from animal waste management system were calculated according to equation: N 2 O AWMS = [N (T) x N ex(T) x AWMS (T) xEF 3(AWMS) ] [kg.year -1 ] N 2 O AWMS = [N (T) x N ex(T) x AWMS (T) xEF 3(AWMS) ] [kg.year -1 ] where:N 2 O AWMS = N 2 O emissions for AWMS [kg.year -1 ] N (T) = number of animals in category (tab. 2.1) N ex(T) = N production in animal excreta pre head in category T [kg.year -1 ] AWMS (T) = % of animal waste management system in category of domestic livestock EF 3(AWMS) = emission coefficient for AWMS

17 N 2 O - methods of estimation: Indirect N 2 O emissions are given by equations (IPCC, 1996): Indirect N 2 O emissions are given by equations (IPCC, 1996): N 2 O INDIRECT = N 2 O (G) + N 2 O (L) [kg.year -1 ] N 2 O INDIRECT = N 2 O (G) + N 2 O (L) [kg.year -1 ] N 2 O (G) = N (FERT) x Frac GASF + N ex x Frac GASM ) x EF 4 [kg.year -1 ] N 2 O (L) = N (FERT) + N EX ) x Frac LEACH x EF 5 [kg.year -1 ] where:N 2 O (G) = N 2 O emissions from atmospheric deposition of NH 3 or NO x N 2 O (L) = N 2 O emissions from leaching Frac LEACH = nitrogen loss due to erosion and runoff Mean value for leaching of nitrogen vary in range 7-10 kg per 1 ha per year (7% of N-inputs) in condition of SR. Next nitrogen losses 5 – 10 (7% of N-inputs) kg per ha per year are caused by soil erosion and runoff (tab Bielek, 1998). Totally soils loss about 14% of nitrogen input due to leaching, runoff and erosion in climatic condition of Slovakia. Indirect N 2 O emissions are given by equations (IPCC, 1996): Indirect N 2 O emissions are given by equations (IPCC, 1996): N 2 O INDIRECT = N 2 O (G) + N 2 O (L) [kg.year -1 ] N 2 O INDIRECT = N 2 O (G) + N 2 O (L) [kg.year -1 ] N 2 O (G) = N (FERT) x Frac GASF + N ex x Frac GASM ) x EF 4 [kg.year -1 ] N 2 O (L) = N (FERT) + N EX ) x Frac LEACH x EF 5 [kg.year -1 ] where:N 2 O (G) = N 2 O emissions from atmospheric deposition of NH 3 or NO x N 2 O (L) = N 2 O emissions from leaching Frac LEACH = nitrogen loss due to erosion and runoff Mean value for leaching of nitrogen vary in range 7-10 kg per 1 ha per year (7% of N-inputs) in condition of SR. Next nitrogen losses 5 – 10 (7% of N-inputs) kg per ha per year are caused by soil erosion and runoff (tab Bielek, 1998). Totally soils loss about 14% of nitrogen input due to leaching, runoff and erosion in climatic condition of Slovakia.

18 Crops crop residuals [t/ha] % N in kg of biomass N [t/ha] N-fixing crops Pea6,511,660,11 Lens7,002,420,17 Bean7,002,960,21 Fodder crops 10,942,960,32 Soybean3,444,190,14 Alfalfa7,002,420,17 Clover6,001,970,12 CerealsWheat5,600,810,05 Ray4,060,680,03 Barley3,970,910,04 Oat3,901,000,04 Maize 3,381,400,05 Other3,901,000,04 Crops residuals in t/ha and total nitrogen amount for Crops residuals in t/ha and total nitrogen amount for different field crops on the territory SR (Jurčová, Torna, 1998) Crops residuals in t/ha and total nitrogen amount for Crops residuals in t/ha and total nitrogen amount for different field crops on the territory SR (Jurčová, Torna, 1998)

19 Crops residuals in t/ha and total nitrogen amount for different field crops on the territory SR (Jurčová, Torna, 1998) Crops residuals in t/ha and total nitrogen amount for different field crops on the territory SR (Jurčová, Torna, 1998) Crops crop residuals [t/ha] % N in kg of biomass N [t/ha] Potato2,442,790,07 Sugar beet 1,111,520,02 Oil plants 10,000,960,11 Tobacco3,162,100,07 Vegetables1,110,960,01 Fodder crops 1,111,520,02 Fodder crops on arable land 5,491,620,09 Maize for silage 4,671,400,07 Other fodder crops except for alfalfa and clover 7,001,620,11 Grasslands5,491,621,62

20 Housing of animals and production of liquid and solid manures in % (Brestenský et al., 1998) Housing of animals and production of liquid and solid manures in % (Brestenský et al., 1998) Category of domestic livestock Animal Waste Management System Production of slurries Production of manure Pasture [%][%][%] Cattle Dairy cattle Non dairy cattle PigsMean76240 Fattening pigs 9190 Sows41,658,40 Sheep and goats PoultryMean55,444,60 Laying hens 2,297,80 Broilers98,21,80 Turkeys and ducks Horses 04555

21 Emission factors for calculation N 2 O emissions from agriculture (IPCC, 1996) Emission factors for calculation N 2 O emissions from agriculture (IPCC, 1996) EF 1 0,0125 (0,0025-0,0225) kg N 2 O-N/kg EF 3 Liquid storage 0,001 (0,001) kg N 2 O-N/kg Dry storage 0,02 (0,005-0,03) kg N 2 O-N/kg Pasture EF 4 0,01 (0,002-0,02) kg N 2 O-na kg emitted NH 3 and NO X (per kg emitted NH 3 a NO X ) EF 5 0,025 (0,002-0,12) kg N 2 O per kg of leaching N

22 N 2 O emissions in tons according to different sources during years in Slovakia (**CORINAIR) N 2 O emissions in tons according to different sources during years in Slovakia (**CORINAIR) Source Fertilizers Excreta Pasture ** Solid ** Liquid ** Crop residuals Symbiotic fixation AMWS Dry ** Liquid ** Volatilization ** Leaching ** **

23 Changes in structure of N inputs into cultivated soil in Slovakia

24 Total N 2 O emissions from agriculture during years 1990 – 2003 Total N 2 O emissions from agriculture during years 1990 – 2003

25 CH 4 emissions are defined as: Enteric fermentation - Methane producing by domestic livestock with digestive tract due to activity of micro-organisms reducing cellulose on simple carbohydrates in process of enteric fermentation Enteric fermentation - Methane producing by domestic livestock with digestive tract due to activity of micro-organisms reducing cellulose on simple carbohydrates in process of enteric fermentation Manure management - In anaerobic conditions due to decomposition of manure some methane is emitted too. These conditions can be found especially in large-scale farms (farms for dairy cattle, fattening pigs, poultry) Manure management - In anaerobic conditions due to decomposition of manure some methane is emitted too. These conditions can be found especially in large-scale farms (farms for dairy cattle, fattening pigs, poultry) Enteric fermentation - Methane producing by domestic livestock with digestive tract due to activity of micro-organisms reducing cellulose on simple carbohydrates in process of enteric fermentation Enteric fermentation - Methane producing by domestic livestock with digestive tract due to activity of micro-organisms reducing cellulose on simple carbohydrates in process of enteric fermentation Manure management - In anaerobic conditions due to decomposition of manure some methane is emitted too. These conditions can be found especially in large-scale farms (farms for dairy cattle, fattening pigs, poultry) Manure management - In anaerobic conditions due to decomposition of manure some methane is emitted too. These conditions can be found especially in large-scale farms (farms for dairy cattle, fattening pigs, poultry)

26 Methane - methods of estimation: are calculated according to equation: Total methane emissions - CH 4TOTAL are calculated according to equation: CH 4(TOTAL) = CH 4(ENTERIC) + CH 4(MANURE) [t.year-1] Where: CH 4(ENTERIC) = emissions from enteric fermentation CH 4(MANURE) = emissions from animal ecreta : CH 4 emissions from enteric fermentation : CH 4(ENTERIC) = N (T) x EF 1(T) [t.year -1 ] Where: CH 4(ENTERIC) = emissions for category of domestic livestock [t.year -1 ] N (T) = number of animals in category T in thousands EF 1(T) = emission coefficient per animal in category T [kg.year -1 ] are calculated according to equation: Total methane emissions - CH 4TOTAL are calculated according to equation: CH 4(TOTAL) = CH 4(ENTERIC) + CH 4(MANURE) [t.year-1] Where: CH 4(ENTERIC) = emissions from enteric fermentation CH 4(MANURE) = emissions from animal ecreta : CH 4 emissions from enteric fermentation : CH 4(ENTERIC) = N (T) x EF 1(T) [t.year -1 ] Where: CH 4(ENTERIC) = emissions for category of domestic livestock [t.year -1 ] N (T) = number of animals in category T in thousands EF 1(T) = emission coefficient per animal in category T [kg.year -1 ]

27 Methane - methods of estimation: according to categories of domestic livestock were calculated (IPCC, 1996): CH 4 emissions from animal wastes according to categories of domestic livestock were calculated (IPCC, 1996): CH 4MANURE = N (T) x EF 2(T) [t.year -1 ] Where: CH 4MANURE = methane emission for category of domestic livestock [t.year -1 ] N (T) = number of animals in category T in thousands EF 2(T) = emission coefficient per animal in category T [kg.year -1 ] according to categories of domestic livestock were calculated (IPCC, 1996): CH 4 emissions from animal wastes according to categories of domestic livestock were calculated (IPCC, 1996): CH 4MANURE = N (T) x EF 2(T) [t.year -1 ] Where: CH 4MANURE = methane emission for category of domestic livestock [t.year -1 ] N (T) = number of animals in category T in thousands EF 2(T) = emission coefficient per animal in category T [kg.year -1 ]

28 Milk productivity scenario up to year 2015 in Slovakia Milk productivity scenario up to year 2015 in Slovakia

29 Total CH 4 emissions from agriculture during years 1990 – 2003 with estimation up to year 2005 in Slovakia Total CH 4 emissions from agriculture during years 1990 – 2003 with estimation up to year 2005 in Slovakia

30 NH 3 emissions are defined as: Animal husbandry Animal husbandry housing, pasture, animal waste management system, landspreading housing, pasture, animal waste management system, landspreading Crops with fertilizers Crops with fertilizers NH 3 emissions from volatilization, foliar emissions a crop decomposition Animal husbandry Animal husbandry housing, pasture, animal waste management system, landspreading housing, pasture, animal waste management system, landspreading Crops with fertilizers Crops with fertilizers NH 3 emissions from volatilization, foliar emissions a crop decomposition

31 Schedule for calculation of NH 3 emission coefficients from animal husbandry Nitrogen released per head per year during housing % emitted nitrogen during housing – Eu Eu = %N recalculation on emitted NH 3 Rest of nitrogen for next transformation - N1 N1 = N – Eu % emited nitrogen during storage Es = %N1 Rest of nitrogen for next transformation - N2 N2 = N1 – Es % emited nitrogen during landspreading Er = %N A % of mineral nitrogen from N2 - N A x Total NH 3 emissions

32 Values for estimation of emission coefficients to schedule Values for estimation of emission coefficients to schedule Livestock categories % NH 3 emissions from housing % NH 3 emissions from AWMS % N AN in excreta % NH 3 emissions from land spreading Dairy cows Cattle Horses Fattening pigs Sows including piglets Sheeps, Goats Laying hens Broilers Other poultry

33 NH 3 emissions from volatilization, foliar emissions a crop decomposition NH 3SOIL = N(T) x EF 2 (T) [t.year -1 ] Where: N(T)= N input according to category of fertilizer T EF 2 (T)= emission coefficient NH 3 kg volatilized per 1 kg N-fertilizer in category T [kg.year -1 ]

34 NH3 emission default factors from cultures with fertilizers. Values are in kg NH3-N volatilized per kg N-fertilizer applied (Emission Inventory Guidebook, 1998) NH3 emission default factors from cultures with fertilizers. Values are in kg NH3-N volatilized per kg N-fertilizer applied (Emission Inventory Guidebook, 1998) Fertilizer type NH 3 -N emission [kg] Asman (1992) ECOTEC (1994) NH 3 -N emission [kg] (simpler methodology) (Central Europe Group III) Ammonium sulphate 0,08 0,10,05 Ammonium nitrate 0,02 0,01 Calcium ammonium nitrate 0,02 0,01 Urea0,15 Di-ammonium phosphate 0,040,05 NPK0,01 0,020,01 Nitrogen solution0,08

35 Ammonia emissions from animal husbandry ( )

36 Trends of NH 3 emissions from cultures with fertilizers ( )

37 Total ammonia emissions from agriculture of SR during years 1990–2003

38 Ammonia emissions according to sources in years 1990 and 2003

39 Notes on input data, methods in condition of Slovak republic Presented data on N 2 O, CH 4 and NH 3 emissions are little bit different in dependence of used methodologz and source of data Presented data on N 2 O, CH 4 and NH 3 emissions are little bit different in dependence of used methodologz and source of data Important appendix of IPCC methodology (1996) in sense of Good practice in GHGs inventory in agriculture are direct measurements of GHGs emissions. Those kinds of measurements absent up to date in conditions of SR. Important appendix of IPCC methodology (1996) in sense of Good practice in GHGs inventory in agriculture are direct measurements of GHGs emissions. Those kinds of measurements absent up to date in conditions of SR. Results of Research Institute of Plant Production were used for more detailed calculation of nitrogen inputs from crop residuals (Jurčová, Torna, 1998) in condition of SR. Results of Research Institute of Plant Production were used for more detailed calculation of nitrogen inputs from crop residuals (Jurčová, Torna, 1998) in condition of SR. National value for calculation of symbiotic fixation of leguminous crops was used too (Bielek, 1998) National value for calculation of symbiotic fixation of leguminous crops was used too (Bielek, 1998) More precise methodology for evaluation of N-cycle was used when categories of domestic livestock were taken account. More precise methodology for evaluation of N-cycle was used when categories of domestic livestock were taken account. Uncertainties are caused first of all by use of default factors. Calculated direct N 2 O emissions from cultivated soils can differ from reality in range %, direct N 2 O emissions from AMWS in range 25 – 150 %, indirect N 2 O emissions from deposition of NH 3 and NOx in range %, indirect N 2 O emissions from leaching and runoff in range %. Uncertainties are caused first of all by use of default factors. Calculated direct N 2 O emissions from cultivated soils can differ from reality in range %, direct N 2 O emissions from AMWS in range 25 – 150 %, indirect N 2 O emissions from deposition of NH 3 and NOx in range %, indirect N 2 O emissions from leaching and runoff in range %. All emissions are evaluated on level business as usual because of shortage of information on some agricultural practices. All emissions are evaluated on level business as usual because of shortage of information on some agricultural practices. Presented data on N 2 O, CH 4 and NH 3 emissions are little bit different in dependence of used methodologz and source of data Presented data on N 2 O, CH 4 and NH 3 emissions are little bit different in dependence of used methodologz and source of data Important appendix of IPCC methodology (1996) in sense of Good practice in GHGs inventory in agriculture are direct measurements of GHGs emissions. Those kinds of measurements absent up to date in conditions of SR. Important appendix of IPCC methodology (1996) in sense of Good practice in GHGs inventory in agriculture are direct measurements of GHGs emissions. Those kinds of measurements absent up to date in conditions of SR. Results of Research Institute of Plant Production were used for more detailed calculation of nitrogen inputs from crop residuals (Jurčová, Torna, 1998) in condition of SR. Results of Research Institute of Plant Production were used for more detailed calculation of nitrogen inputs from crop residuals (Jurčová, Torna, 1998) in condition of SR. National value for calculation of symbiotic fixation of leguminous crops was used too (Bielek, 1998) National value for calculation of symbiotic fixation of leguminous crops was used too (Bielek, 1998) More precise methodology for evaluation of N-cycle was used when categories of domestic livestock were taken account. More precise methodology for evaluation of N-cycle was used when categories of domestic livestock were taken account. Uncertainties are caused first of all by use of default factors. Calculated direct N 2 O emissions from cultivated soils can differ from reality in range %, direct N 2 O emissions from AMWS in range 25 – 150 %, indirect N 2 O emissions from deposition of NH 3 and NOx in range %, indirect N 2 O emissions from leaching and runoff in range %. Uncertainties are caused first of all by use of default factors. Calculated direct N 2 O emissions from cultivated soils can differ from reality in range %, direct N 2 O emissions from AMWS in range 25 – 150 %, indirect N 2 O emissions from deposition of NH 3 and NOx in range %, indirect N 2 O emissions from leaching and runoff in range %. All emissions are evaluated on level business as usual because of shortage of information on some agricultural practices. All emissions are evaluated on level business as usual because of shortage of information on some agricultural practices.

40 Thank you for your attention, Doc. RNDr. Bernard Šiška, PhD. Hospodárska 7, , Nitra Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering Department of Biometeorology and Hydrology Thank you for your attention, Doc. RNDr. Bernard Šiška, PhD. Hospodárska 7, , Nitra Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra Faculty of Horticulture and Landscape Engineering Department of Biometeorology and Hydrology


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