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Emissions Inventory: India & China Assessments P.R. Shukla.

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Presentation on theme: "Emissions Inventory: India & China Assessments P.R. Shukla."— Presentation transcript:

1 Emissions Inventory: India & China Assessments P.R. Shukla

2 Indian Emissions in 1995 (Million Ton) CO CH N 2 O 0.3 NO x 3.6 SO 2 4.7

3 Trends of Indian emissions (Million Ton) Carbon dioxideMethane Emissions (MT) Growth rate 6.4 % Growth rate 1 %

4 Trends of Indian emissions (MT) N 2 O: Growth rate 5.6 % SO 2 : Growth Rate 5.4% NOx N 2 O and SO 2 Growth rate 4.8 %

5 Comparative GHG Emissions from Other Countries

6 Methane Emissions (1990) (MT) Dominant Sources India17.2Livestock China28.5Rice Brazil 9.9Livestock USA27.0Solid Waste, Oil Global375Agriculture, Solid Waste, Livestock

7 CO 2 per Capita (1990) World USA Germany Japan China India Tons

8 Growth Rates of CO 2 Emissions ( ) Percentage World India China Brazil Japan USA Germany

9 N 2 O Emissions (1990) Global Emissions … Gg Emissions (Gg)

10 SO 2 per Area (1990) Germany UK SpainJapan USA China India Canada T / km 2

11 Growth Rates of SO 2 Emissions % Growth India China Japan USA Germany

12 NO x Emissions (1990) Emissions (MT)

13 Emission Coefficients

14 Indian Emission Coefficients 2CO 2, N 2 O and NO X coefficients are same as IPCC 2Fuelwood Sulfur contents assumed to be closer to CORINAIR 90 range, rather than to IPCC default values

15 Methane Emission Coefficients 2Age profile specific livestock emissions (from IPCC) 2Methane coefficients for paddy are Indianised 2Coal mines are categorized in four levels (as per IPCC) for Methane estimates 2For MSW, IPCC co-efficient is used. While MSW estimates are Indianised, composition may differ from IPCC assumptions

16 Methane Emission Coefficient : Paddy

17 Methane Emission Coefficient : Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) /Thirty cities measured values /Composition of Indian MSW differs from IPCC assumptions (Grams/person) Daily MSW IPCC Value 330 Co-eff (kg/kg of MSW)

18 Differences in SO 2 Emission coefficients (Ton/Ton) Gasoline Kerosene Light Diesel Oil Diesel Fuelwood Coal* Sulfuric acid India SpecificIPCC * Coal coefficients compared with IPCC low coal Emissions (MT) Indian coefficients IPCC coefficients

19 Regional Emission Distributions

20 CO 2 Emission Distribution

21 Methane Emissions

22 Sectoral Emissions

23 Contribution to GWP (1995) 62% 31% 7% CO 2 CH 4 N2ON2O CO 2 equivalent GWP1254 MT Growth rate ( )4.1 %

24 CO 2 Emissions (1995) 45% 35% 13% 2% 5% Power sector IndustryRoad Other transport Other sectors 35% 10% 55% Steel Cement Other industries Power sector emits 80% from 30 plants Industry emissions are relatively dispersed 2 10% districts emit 70% (including 5 steel plants) 62 % contribution to GWP

25 CO 2 Emissions Growth Rates ( ) Miscellaneous Electric power Transport Industry Agriculture services All India %

26 Growth rates of Transport CO 2 ( )

27 Methane : Major Contributors 45% 22% 15% 10% 2% 4% 2% Livestock Paddy cultivation Biomass burning Municipal solid waste Waste water Oil & gas production & transportation Coal production 31 % contribution to GWP

28 N 2 O : Major Contributors 7 % contribution to GWP 60% 11% 10% 9% 7% 3% Nitrogen fertilizer use Biomass burning Fertilizer productionLivestock OthersIndustry (non-energy)

29 SO 2 : Major Contributors 46% 36% 8% 6% 3% 1% Power r Industr y AgricultureRoad OthersOther transport 42% 27% 14% 10% 7% Other industriesSteel FertilizerCement Industry (non-energy) Emission sources same as CO 2 emissions

30 NO x : Major Contributors 28% 19% 4% 2%0% Electric power generationRoad transport Industry (energy use)Biomass burning Other transportOthers Industry (non-energy)

31 Methane Emissions : Urban - Rural Comparison Paddy Livestock Biomass Oil & Natural Gas Manure Management MSW Agriculture residue Waste Water Percentage Medinipur (Rural) Delhi (Urban )

32 Emissions from Large Point Sources

33 LPS Location Map

34 LPS: CO 2 Emissions Million Tons

35 LPS: SO 2 Emissions Thousand Tons A B C D E F

36 CO 2 from Power Plants ç50 LPS emit 40% of all India CO 2 çMore concentration near coal mine mouths Million Tons

37 CO 2 Contribution from LPS Others (Transport, Household) LPS All India Emissions = 778 MT All India LPS

38 Emission Performance and Age of Power Plants çR 2 (age & SO 2 gm/kWh) = 0.57 çOther measures (FGD) required for further improvements

39 Largest CO 2 LPS All these top emitters are power sector LPS

40 Urbanization and LPS (Metro-districts)

41 Emissions Maps for China

42 Chinas SO2 Emissions Inventory Maps

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