Presentation on theme: "ACTIONS FOR CONTROLLING SHORT- LIVED CLIMATE FORCERS AGRICULTURAL EMISSIONS: 19 th -21 st SPTEMBER, 2012 Dr. Nicholas Iddi MEST."— Presentation transcript:
ACTIONS FOR CONTROLLING SHORT- LIVED CLIMATE FORCERS AGRICULTURAL EMISSIONS: 19 th -21 st SPTEMBER, 2012 Dr. Nicholas Iddi MEST
OUTLINE Introduction Principles of soil management SLM technologies Agricultural emissions in Ghana Trend and Impacts Conclusion
INTRODUCTION Ensuring food security in a context of growing population and changing climate is arguably the principal challenge of our time. The current human population of 7 billion will increase to more than 9 billion by 2050. This adds to the challenge of maintaining and preserving the resilience of both natural and agricultural ecosystems. Based on these developments, projections indicate that global food production must increase by 70 percent by 2050. In many African countries, where the challenge is most acute, food production must increase by more than 100 percent or must effectively double. The onus of this challenge falls on agriculture, which is the sector of the global economy that is most vulnerable to the effects of global warming but also responsible for one-third of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
INTRODUCTION Increasing agricultural productivity, enhancing its resilience to climate change, and reducing the emissions that come from the agriculture sector are therefore triple imperatives that require alternative sets of practices. Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) seeks to increase productivity in an environmentally and socially sustainable way, strengthen farmers resilience to climate change, and reduce agricultures contribution to climate change by reducing GHG emissions and sequestering carbon. A key element of CSA is sustainable land management (SLM) involving the implementation of land-use systems and management practices that enable humans to maximize the economic and social benefits from land while maintaining or enhancing the ecosystem services that land resources provide.
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SOIL MANAGEMENT Because soil is the basic resource in agriculture and forest land use, it is the central element of most technologies.. It is not possible to take more out of a soil than what is put in it without degrading its quality. Only by replacing what is taken can a soil be kept fertile, productive, and responsive to inputs. Marginal soils cultivated with marginal inputs produce marginal yields and support marginal living. Soils are integral to any strategy of mitigating global warming and improving the environment.
INTEGRATING SCIENCE, PRACTICES AND POLICY FOR SUSTAINABLE SOIL MANAGEMENT AND RESTORATION
SLM Technologies SLM technologies can benefit farmers by increasing yields and reducing production cost by increasing soil carbon sequestration and these include; No tillage Integrated nutrient and water management Mulching and residue management Agroforestry Cover crops Rain harvesting Crop rotation Conservation agriculture etc What cant be measured cant be managed
SYNERGIES Synergies here imply a positive correlation between carbon sequestration and profitability. Increasing food security that will require land management technologies that maximize synergies and minimize tradeoffs. Terrestrial and marine environments presently absorb about half the anthropogenic carbon and soil contains at least twice the amount of carbon than is in the atmosphere and three times that in vegetation. Plant photosynthesis represent the effective origin of the over whelming bulk of soil carbon. Carbon sequestration helps to stimulate photosynthetic yields and increased crop productivity. Thus, increasing soil carbon in the steady state by just 15 % would lower atmospheric CO2 by 30 %, offering huge increase in agricultural productivity and environmental benefits. How can soil C be made a commodity that can be traded like any other farm product?
Greenhouse Gas /Agriculture in Ghana Agriculture has been the main backbone of Ghanas economy over the years and from 1990-2010, Agriculture accounted for about an average of 35% of Ghanas GDP. Agriculture is the major employer in Ghana and accounted for about 60%. Food needs (Crops and livestock products) have been partially satisfied by domestic production and there has been importation of some quantity of food, especially livestock products and rice. However, it contributes about 40% of greenhouse gas emissions in Ghana
SOURCES OF EMISSIONS The main source categories under the sector are; Domestic livestock Enteric Fermentation and Manure Management Rice cultivation in flooded rice fields Prescribed Burning of Savannas Field Burning of Agricultural Residues Agricultural Soils Inappropriate Fertilizer application The main GHGs produced from these Sources are Methane (CH 4 ), Nitrous oxides (N 2 O) and Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ).
Field Burning of Agriculture Residues (FBAR) The emissions ranged from 10 (1990) to 28 (2002) Gg CO2 eq.
EFFECTS RESIDUE BURNING Human health Degrade landscape and soil quality (soil moisture, erosion, soil temperature and nutrients) Reduced soil fertility and food production/security
CONCLUSION The overall policy is to grow more produce from less land, more crop per drop of water, more yield per unit input of fertilizers and pesticides, more food per unit of energy, and more biomass per unit C and environmental foot-print. We must be prepared to access new and additional finance, and to systematically build the technical and institutional capacity of institutions that play a necessary role in emission inventory, research and management. Build partnerships and synergies of experts and institutions
PROPOSED RESPONSES 1. Livestock Alter the diets of livestock: using high grain rations, adding fats or oils and anti-microbial agents Use more efferent breeds and improve reproductive performance Aerate manure and store at low temperatures Trap the methane and burn it as fuel 2. Crops and Soils Practice no till methods/ organic matter conservation Apply fertilizer judiciously: adding just enough, at the right place and time, to meet crop demand and avoid access leading emissions Convert agricultural waste to biofuels