7 Detailed method (Tier 2) Methane emission due to enteric fermentation in cattle production – dairy cattleDetailed method (Tier 2)Herd of dairy cattle disaggregated into 18 subclasses (from less than 1000 kg of milk to over than 9000 kg of milk yield per year)Theoretical diets were calculated by taking into account animal requirements and quality of local feeds for each individual subclassMethane emissions were calculated on the basis of gross energy intake – methane conversion rate 0.07 for milk yields up to 3000 kg per year and 0.06 for higher yieldsTotal dairy cattle population was distributed to individual subclasses on the basis of data from official milk recording (Cattle Breeding Service) – extrapolated to data published by Statistical Office
8 Methane emission due to enteric fermentation in cattle production – dairy cattle Based on data from period an equation was developed that enables the estimate on the basis of average milk production.Used for suckler cows
9 Detailed method (Tier 2) Methane emission due to enteric fermentation in cattle production – non-dairy cattleDetailed method (Tier 2)Gross energy intake estimated on the basis of animal requirements.Data on total live-weight gain (Statistical Office) distributed to classes of growing cattle (fixed values for heifers).
10 Methane emission due to enteric fermentation in cattle production – emission factors* Category of populationEF (CH4)(enteric fermentation)Sub-categorykg/head*yearCattle totalYoung cattle (under 1 year)30Young cattle (1-2 years)Breeding heifers65.5Heifers for fattening66.6Fatening bulls and steersCattle over 2 years75.1Bulls for breeding59.1Dairy cows93.4Other cows80.4* Factors depend on production and are therefore not fixed
11 Methane emission from manure management - cattle Methane producing capacity (B0)Cows0,24 m3/kg VSOther cattle0,17 m3/kg VSDetailed method (Tier 2)Estimates based on volatile solids excretion which is calculated using the same approach as for enteric fermentation.Methane conversion factor has been calculated on the basis of partial methane conversion fractions for cool climate and proportions of individual manure storage types.
12 Manure management * census data corrected with regard to the lenght of grazing season** estimates on the basis of census data onfarm structure
13 Methane emission from manure management in cattle production – emission factors* 11.5Other cows12.7Dairy cows7.6Bulls for breeding6.3Fatening bulls and steersHeifers for fattening8.8Breeding heifersCattle over 2 years7.7Young cattle (1-2 years)3.8Young cattle (under 1 year)Cattle totalkg/head*yearSub-categoryEF (CH4)(manure managem.)Category of population* Factors depend on production and are therefore not fixed
14 Methane emissions from pig production- enteric fermentation MARKET ORIENTED FAMILY FARMS47 %SMAL SCALE FARM PRODUCTION22 %LARGE PIG FARMS31 %1.5 kg of methane per year1.5 kg of methane per year2.33 kg of methane per yearAverage factor 1.67 kg CH4/pig
15 Methane emissions from pig production - manure management MARKET ORIENTED FAMILY FARMS47 %SMAL SCALE FARM PRODUCTION22 %LARGE PIG FARMS31 %0.5 kg VS/d0.775 kg VS/d0.5 kg VS/dsolid %liquid %solid %liquid %anaer. dig %lagoon %solid %liquid %1.24 kg CH4/pig5.25 kg CH4/pig9.00 kg CH4/pigAverage factor 5.74 kg CH4/pig
16 Methane emission in sheep, goats, horses and poultry Default factors suggested by IPCC (1997) have been considered.
17 Nitrous oxide emissions in animal production DATA ON ANIMAL POPULATION(Statistical Office)ESTIMATES ON N EXCRETION(IPCC, 1997)N EXCRETED IN HOUSING SYSTEMSN EXCRETED IN GRAZING SYSTEMSNH3 and NOX emissionsSpecific factors:Lagoons kg N2O/kg N excr.Liquid kg N2O/kg N excr.Solid kg N2O/kg N excr.N in animal manureIndirectemissionsNleachingEmissions from soilsNO2 emisions
18 Nitrogen excretion in cattle (for N2O emisions)Dairy cows100 kg/ yearOther cows*Other cattle70 kg/ year* To keep continuity from basis year
19 Nitrogen excretion in cattle (for N2O emissions)(for NH3 emissions)Dairy cows100 kg/ year105.5* kg/ yearOther cows70 kg/ yearOther cattle35 kg/ year* Related to milk production
20 Ammonia emissions - mass flow EXCRETED NEmission from animal housingN IN SLURRY AND MANURE STORESEmission from storageN IN ANIMAL MANURESEmission from spreadingN IN SOIL
21 Example: Dairy cow- traditional tied system with beding N excretion105.5 kgManure withUrinebedding43%57%EF housing*7%EF storage**opened30%15%covered3%1.5%EF spreading***basic factor60%50%reduced factor36%Example: Dairy cow- traditional tied system with beding* From excreted** From soluble ex housing*** From soluble ex storageTotal: 31 % of excreted N
22 Emissions of NH3-N (kg/year) in cattle production Dairy cattleOther cowsOther cattleGrazing18.104.22.168Tied system32.824.110.9Slurry4029.513.3Total herd33.124.411.0
23 Reduction of GHG emissions from 1986 to 2000 (1986 = 1.00) IndexTotal emissionsIndexNitrous oxide0,84Manure management0,65Cattle0,60Pigs0,85Poultry0,36Sheep, goats, horses2,46Direct emissions from agricultural soil0,89Mineral fertilizers1,14Animal fertilizers0,80Symbiotic fixation0,22Grazing1,58Crop residuesIndirect emissions0,93NH3 and NOX0,90Leaching0,94IndexMethane0,85Enteric fermentation0,92Cattle0,91PigsSheep, goats, horses2,21Manure management0,621,110,42Poultry0,381,51
24 Reduction of ammonia emissions From 1990 to 2002 ammonia emissions were reduced by 10 %.