Presentation on theme: "Inventory of greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions in Slovenia Jože VERBIČ Agricultural institute of Slovenia, Ljubljana."— Presentation transcript:
Inventory of greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions in Slovenia Jože VERBIČ Agricultural institute of Slovenia, Ljubljana
Methodology used for estimating emissions GHG: IPCC Greenhouse Inventory Reference Manual 1997 NH 3 : EMEP/CORINAIR 2002 Menzi et al (Ammoniak-Emissionen in der Schweiz)
Structure of GHG emissions in agriculture
Structure of methane emissions
Structure of nitrous oxide emissions If indirect emissions and emissions due to fertilization with animal manures are attributed to animal production, cattle contribute 60 % of N 2 O.
Structure of ammonia emissions
Methane emission due to enteric fermentation in cattle production – dairy cattle Detailed method (Tier 2) Herd of dairy cattle disaggregated into 18 subclasses (from less than 1000 kg of milk to over than 9000 kg of milk yield per year) Theoretical diets were calculated by taking into account animal requirements and quality of local feeds for each individual subclass Methane emissions were calculated on the basis of gross energy intake – methane conversion rate 0.07 for milk yields up to 3000 kg per year and 0.06 for higher yields Total dairy cattle population was distributed to individual subclasses on the basis of data from official milk recording (Cattle Breeding Service) – extrapolated to data published by Statistical Office
Based on data from period an equation was developed that enables the estimate on the basis of average milk production. Used for suckler cows Methane emission due to enteric fermentation in cattle production – dairy cattle
Methane emission due to enteric fermentation in cattle production – non-dairy cattle Detailed method (Tier 2) Gross energy intake estimated on the basis of animal requirements. Data on total live-weight gain (Statistical Office) distributed to classes of growing cattle (fixed values for heifers).
Category of populationEF (CH 4 ) (enteric fermentation) Sub-category kg/head*year Cattle total Young cattle (under 1 year)30 Young cattle (1-2 years) Breeding heifers65.5 Heifers for fattening66.6 Fatening bulls and steers66.6 Cattle over 2 years Breeding heifers75.1 Heifers for fattening66.6 Fatening bulls and steers66.6 Bulls for breeding59.1 Dairy cows93.4 Other cows80.4 Methane emission due to enteric fermentation in cattle production – emission factors* * Factors depend on production and are therefore not fixed
Methane emission from manure management - cattle Detailed method (Tier 2) Estimates based on volatile solids excretion which is calculated using the same approach as for enteric fermentation. Methane producing capacity (B 0 ) Cows 0,24 m 3 /kg VS Other cattle 0,17 m 3 /kg VS Methane conversion factor has been calculated on the basis of partial methane conversion fractions for cool climate and proportions of individual manure storage types.
Manure management * census data corrected with regard to the lenght of grazing season ** estimates on the basis of census data on farm structure
11.5 Other cows 12.7 Dairy cows 7.6 Bulls for breeding 6.3 Fatening bulls and steers 6.3 Heifers for fattening 8.8 Breeding heifers Cattle over 2 years 6.3 Fatening bulls and steers 6.3 Heifers for fattening 7.7 Breeding heifers Young cattle (1-2 years) 3.8Young cattle (under 1 year) Cattle total kg/head*year Sub-category EF (CH 4 ) (manure managem.) Category of population Methane emission from manure management in cattle production – emission factors* * Factors depend on production and are therefore not fixed
Methane emissions from pig production- enteric fermentation PIG PRODUCTION LARGE PIG FARMS 31 % MARKET ORIENTED FAMILY FARMS 47 % SMAL SCALE FARM PRODUCTION 22 % 1.5 kg of methane per year 2.33 kg of methane per year 1.5 kg of methane per year Average factor 1.67 kg CH 4 /pig
Methane emissions from pig production - manure management PIG PRODUCTION LARGE PIG FARMS 31 % MARKET ORIENTED FAMILY FARMS 47 % SMAL SCALE FARM PRODUCTION 22 % 0.5 kg VS/d kg VS/d 0.5 kg VS/d solid 56 % liquid 17 % anaer. dig. 12 % lagoon 15 % solid 5 % liquid 95 % solid 95 % liquid 5 % 9.00 kg CH 4 /pig 5.25 kg CH 4 /pig 1.24 kg CH 4 /pig Average factor 5.74 kg CH 4 /pig
Methane emission in sheep, goats, horses and poultry Default factors suggested by IPCC (1997) have been considered.
Nitrous oxide emissions in animal production DATA ON ANIMAL POPULATION (Statistical Office) ESTIMATES ON N EXCRETION (IPCC, 1997) N EXCRETED IN GRAZING SYSTEMS N EXCRETED IN HOUSING SYSTEMS Specific factors: Lagoons kg N 2 O/kg N excr. Liquid kg N 2 O/kg N excr. Solid kg N 2 O/kg N excr. N in animal manure NH 3 and NO X emissions NO 2 emisions Emissions from soils Indirect emissions N leaching
N excretion (for N 2 O emisions) Dairy cows100 kg/ year Other cows*100 kg/ year Other cattle70 kg/ year Nitrogen excretion in cattle * To keep continuity from basis year
N excretion (for N 2 O emissions) N excretion (for NH 3 emissions) Dairy cows100 kg/ year105.5* kg/ year Other cows100 kg/ year70 kg/ year Other cattle70 kg/ year35 kg/ year Nitrogen excretion in cattle * Related to milk production
Ammonia emissions - mass flow EXCRETED N Emission from animal housing N IN SLURRY AND MANURE STORES N IN ANIMAL MANURES N IN SOIL Emission from storage Emission from spreading
N excretion kg Manure withUrine bedding 43%57% EF housing*7% EF storage** opened30%15% covered3%1.5% EF spreading*** basic factor60%50% reduced factor36%30% * From excreted ** From soluble ex housing *** From soluble ex storage Total: 31 % of excreted N Example: Dairy cow- traditional tied system with beding
Dairy cattle Other cows Other cattle Grazing Tied system Slurry Total herd Emissions of NH 3 -N (kg/year) in cattle production
Reduction of GHG emissions from 1986 to 2000 (1986 = 1.00) Index Methane0,85 Enteric fermentation0,92 Cattle0,91 Pigs0,91 Sheep, goats, horses2,21 Manure management0,62 Cattle1,11 Pigs0,42 Poultry0,38 Sheep, goats, horses1,51 Index Nitrous oxide0,84 Manure management0,65 Cattle0,60 Pigs0,85 Poultry0,36 Sheep, goats, horses2,46 Direct emissions from agricultural soil 0,89 Mineral fertilizers1,14 Animal fertilizers0,80 Symbiotic fixation0,22 Grazing1,58 Crop residues0,84 Indirect emissions0,93 NH 3 and NO X 0,90 Leaching0,94 Index Total emissions 0.84
Reduction of ammonia emissions From 1990 to 2002 ammonia emissions were reduced by 10 %.