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Marco Bruni, seecon international gmbh

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Presentation on theme: "Marco Bruni, seecon international gmbh"— Presentation transcript:

1 Marco Bruni, seecon international gmbh
Springs Marco Bruni, seecon international gmbh

2 Copy it, adapt it, use it – but acknowledge the source!
Copyright & Disclaimer Copy it, adapt it, use it – but acknowledge the source! Copyright Included in the SSWM Toolbox are materials from various organisations and sources. Those materials are open source. Following the open-source concept for capacity building and non-profit use, copying and adapting is allowed provided proper acknowledgement of the source is made (see below). The publication of these materials in the SSWM Toolbox does not alter any existing copyrights. Material published in the SSWM Toolbox for the first time follows the same open-source concept, with all rights remaining with the original authors or producing organisations. To view an official copy of the the Creative Commons Attribution Works 3.0 Unported License we build upon, visit This agreement officially states that: You are free to: Share - to copy, distribute and transmit this document   Remix - to adapt this document. We would appreciate receiving a copy of any changes that you have made to improve this document. Under the following conditions: Attribution: You must always give the original authors or publishing agencies credit for the document or picture you are using. Disclaimer The contents of the SSWM Toolbox reflect the opinions of the respective authors and not necessarily the official opinion of the funding or supporting partner organisations. Depending on the initial situations and respective local circumstances, there is no guarantee that single measures described in the toolbox will make the local water and sanitation system more sustainable. The main aim of the SSWM Toolbox is to be a reference tool to provide ideas for improving the local water and sanitation situation in a sustainable manner. Results depend largely on the respective situation and the implementation and combination of the measures described. An in-depth analysis of respective advantages and disadvantages and the suitability of the measure is necessary in every single case. We do not assume any responsibility for and make no warranty with respect to the results that may be obtained from the use of the information provided.

3 Contents Introduction How Can Springs Optimise my Local Water System? Different Types of Springs and their Performance Tracing for Springs and Assessing Feasibility Basic Design and Construction Principles Operation and Maintenance Applicability Advantages and Disadvantages References

4 1. Introduction Definition
When groundwater makes its way to the earth’s surface and emerges as small water holes or wet spots, this feature is referred to as a spring. Source: MEULI & WEHRLI (2001) Source: FWT LTD (n.y.)

5 1. Introduction Characteristics Main Features
Spring water’s generally of high quality, But rather susceptible to changes in rainfall patterns  low reliability in terms of quantity Significance Important source for drinking water in many parts of the world Cultural importance / ‘source of life’

6 2. How Can Springs Optimise my Local Water System?
Health Aspects 1/2 In many rural areas, spring water is often accessed without having implemented adequate spring protection measures or having installed appropriate catchment systems. The consequences being that the spring gets contaminated (e.g. by pathogens, chemicals, metals) and water quality thus does not meet criteria for drinking water standards. This unprotected spring without any catchment system is the main drinking water source for a rural community in the Masindi district in western Uganda. It is contaminated by livestock dung and through bathing and washing activities. Source: [Accessed: ]

7 2. How Can Springs Optimise my Local Water System?
Health Aspects 2/2 A properly tapped spring can improve a communities’ water supply substantially. Additional spring protection measures (e.g. interdiction of agricultural activities and pit latrines in the surrounding area, etc.) support this process. High quality drinking water No or just minor purification required Source: WATERCHARITY (n.y.)

8 Gravity Springs Artesian Springs
3. Different Types of Springs and their Performance Types of Springs To understand the possibilities of water tapping from springs, the distinction between gravity springs and artesian springs is most important. Gravity Springs Artesian Springs

9 3. Different Types of Springs and their Performance
Gravity Springs Gravity springs occur either if the ground surface dips below the water table (‘depression subtype’) or if an outcrop of impervious soil prevents the downward flow of the water (‘overflow subtype’). The water flows more or less horizontally out of the ground. Gravity Depression Spring Gravity Overflow Spring Source: SMET and WIJK (2002)

10 3. Different Types of Springs and their Performance
Artesian Springs Artesian springs occur when water is trapped between impervious layers and is forced to the surface under pressure. The water flows vertically out of the ground. Source: SMET and WIJK (2002)

11 4. Tracing for Springs and Assessing Feasibility
Looking for a Spring Tracing for springs requires much practical experience. The best places to look for springs are on the slopes of hillsides and river valleys. It is always advisable to investigate the source, which the villagers are already using for their water requirements. Villagers and people knowing the area (e.g. hunters, farmers, etc.) may provide information about potential new water sources. MEULI & WEHRLI (2001) Source: MEULI & WEHRLI (2001)

12 Feasibility of a Spring
4. Tracing for Springs and Assessing Feasibility Feasibility of a Spring Having found a spring, the feasibility as a drinking water source has to be assessed. The feasibility study provides the information and data for the design of a water supply system and takes into consideration any possible environmental impact. ? Aspects to be considered include: The quantity and quality of the water, Its reliability, The current and future uses. Source: [Accessed: ]

13 Gravity Springs 1/2 - The Components
5. Basic Design and Construction Principles Gravity Springs 1/2 - The Components The major components in the design of a gravity spring water supply system include: The actual spring water collection area, The supply pipe, The collection chamber (or spring box), and The outlet to a storage tank. Source: SMET and WIJK (2002) SMET and WIJK (2002)

14 Gravity Springs 2/2 – The Spring Box
5. Basic Design and Construction Principles Gravity Springs 2/2 – The Spring Box Although not always required, a spring box can provide many benefits: It protects the spring water from contamination by surface runoff and contact with humans and animals. Storage of water Spring boxes may also act as settling basins, assisting the removal of suspended sediments. This is a distinct health advantage, since bacteria and other organisms are generally attached to particles. WFTW (n.y..); HAWLEY 2003; WATERAID 2008 Source: WATERCHARITY (n.y.)

15 5. Basic Design and Construction Principles
Artesian Springs The tapping of artesian springs differ quite a bit from the tapping of gravity springs since the water flow is oriented vertically. Source: SMET and WIJK (2002)

16 Protection of the Catchment and the Spring Surrounding
5. Basic Design and Construction Principles Protection of the Catchment and the Spring Surrounding In order to maintain safe drinking water quality, the permanent protection of the catchment and the direct spring surroundings is essential. The protection measures must be enforced and fully respected and understood by the local water users to guarantee long-term sustainability. WAARDE et al. (n.y.) Source: MEULI & WEHRLE (2001)

17 6. Operation and Maintenance
Simple Spring catchments need very little operation and maintenance. A simple design combined with high-quality construction will keep maintenance requirements to a minimum. Yet, all spring catchments need a periodic check-up and cleaning (i.e. emptying, disinfection, removal of sediments) once a year. Minor jobs like basic repairs or monitoring activities can be planned and carried out by the caretaker. In case of major repairs (e.g. wet spots around the catchment, leaks at the spring chamber, etc.), the responsible service should be consulted. MEULI & WEHRLE (2001); HELVETAS (n.y.) Source: HAWLEY (2003)

18 Universally Applicable
7. Applicability Universally Applicable The use of springs as the main source for community water supply is applicable whenever a spring occurs and its yield in terms of quantity and its quality is sufficient. However, to maintain the water quality, strictly ensured spring protection in the catchment zone has to be ensured permanently to avoid contamination. Although springs only need little operation and maintenance, monitoring of water quality has to be conducted regularly. In many cultures, springs are highly respected as a kind of sacred spot or as a dwelling place of spirits. This attitude and belief towards springs needs to be carefully considered when constructing a spring catchment. MEULI & WEHRLE (2001)

19 Springs Put in a Nutshell
8. Advantages and Disadvantages Springs Put in a Nutshell Advantages: High water quality Fairly low construction costs if pumping is not required (gravity-based distribution system) Very little operation and maintenance High reliability of water flow and no seasonal variations (only for artesian springs) O&M can be carried out by a local caretaker Disadvantages: Risk of contamination, especially for gravity springs  Need for spring protection Unstable flow, mostly dependant on rainfall (only for gravity springs) Increase of yield not possible Possibility of a spontaneous disappearance of the spring Location of the spring may not be convenient or easily accessible Opportunities for spring tapping are limited to specific regions (depending on topography, geology and hydrology)

20 9. References FWT LTD (n.y.): Spring. Little Penarth: FWT LTD. URL: [Accessed: ]. HAWLEY, R.J. (2003): A Technical Brief for Springbox Construction. Houghton: Michigan Technological University. URL: [Accessed: ]. HELVETAS (n.y.): Village Water Supply. Caretakers Manual. Bamenda: Helvetas Cameroon. URL: [Accessed: ]. MEULI, C.; WEHRLE, K. (2001): Spring Catchment. St. Gallen: Swiss Centre for Development Cooperation in Technology and Management (SKAT). URL: [Accessed: ]. SMET, J. (Editor); WIJK, C. van (Editor) (2002): Small Community Water Supplies: Technology, People and Partnership: Spring Water Tapping - Chapter 8. The Hague: International Water and Sanitation Centre (IRC). URL: [Accessed: ]. WAARDE, J. van der; MUSA, T.M.; ISCHER, M. (n.y.): Water Catchment Protection Handbook. (= Learning and Experience Sharing Series, Volume 1). Bamenda: Helvetas Cameroon, Swiss Association for International Co-operation. URL: [Accessed: ]. WATERAID (2008): Technology Notes. London: Wateraid. URL: [Accessed: ]. WATER CHARITY (n.y.): Spring Catchment and Spring Box. Crestline: Water Charity. URL: [Accessed: ]. WFTW (n.y): Constructing Structures for Springs. Technical Note No. RWS. 1.C.1. Washington, D.C.: Water for the World (WFTW), U.S. Agency for International Development. URL: [Accessed: ].

21 “Linking up Sustainable Sanitation, Water Management & Agriculture”
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