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Analiza U. Miso, Xavier University

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1 Analiza U. Miso, Xavier University
Vertical Gardens Analiza U. Miso, Xavier University

2 Copy it, adapt it, use it – but acknowledge the source!
Copyright & Disclaimer Copy it, adapt it, use it – but acknowledge the source! Copyright Included in the SSWM Toolbox are materials from various organisations and sources. Those materials are open source. Following the open-source concept for capacity building and non-profit use, copying and adapting is allowed provided proper acknowledgement of the source is made (see below). The publication of these materials in the SSWM Toolbox does not alter any existing copyrights. Material published in the SSWM Toolbox for the first time follows the same open-source concept, with all rights remaining with the original authors or producing organisations. To view an official copy of the the Creative Commons Attribution Works 3.0 Unported License we build upon, visit This agreement officially states that: You are free to: Share - to copy, distribute and transmit this document   Remix - to adapt this document. We would appreciate receiving a copy of any changes that you have made to improve this document. Under the following conditions: Attribution: You must always give the original authors or publishing agencies credit for the document or picture you are using. Disclaimer The contents of the SSWM Toolbox reflect the opinions of the respective authors and not necessarily the official opinion of the funding or supporting partner organisations. Depending on the initial situations and respective local circumstances, there is no guarantee that single measures described in the toolbox will make the local water and sanitation system more sustainable. The main aim of the SSWM Toolbox is to be a reference tool to provide ideas for improving the local water and sanitation situation in a sustainable manner. Results depend largely on the respective situation and the implementation and combination of the measures described. An in-depth analysis of respective advantages and disadvantages and the suitability of the measure is necessary in every single case. We do not assume any responsibility for and make no warranty with respect to the results that may be obtained from the use of the information provided.

3 How it can optimize SSWM Design Principals Operation and Maintenance
Contents Concept How it can optimize SSWM Design Principals Operation and Maintenance Applicability Advantages and disadvantages References 3

4 1. Concept Background The term vertical garden refers to any kind of construction and support structure for growing plants in an upwards-directed, vertical way and thereby efficiently and productively making use of the existing space. A huge variety of different designs and concepts are available. The design of vertical garden depends on the available material, space and local preferences as well as on the creativity and imagination of the users. Crops that can be grown comprise food crops (vegetables, fruits, herbs) and non-food crops (e.g. ornamental plants, medical plants). 4

5 2. How it can optimize SSWM
Important factors how Vertical Gardens optimize SSWM Vertical gardening aid to advance the productivity levels of urban and sub-urban agricultural production sites where most often available space is the biggest agricultural limitation. Vertical Gardens utilize soil, compost, vermicomost, acrylic material as well as aquaponic and aeroponic solutions as growing media thereby maximizing the use of the resources while compromising the degradation of nutrients by using various planting medium. 5

6 2. How it can optimize SSWM
Important factors how Vertical Gardens optimize SSWM Vertical gardening can re-utilize greywater, reclaimed water or the fertilization with urine. It maximizes the use of space by using sacks, bags, flowerpots and all kinds of available receptacles like bins, cans, tins, bottels, tanks or boxes and even the unused places like on the roof of houses, balconies, on the top of walls or just hung up. 6

7 3. Design Principals Few Different Vertical Garden Designs
Further vertical garden solutions that allow for a good utilization of available space are cultivation arches, cultivation towers or cultivation bags. Other systems like cultivation umbrellas, cultivation bangles or some kind of cultivation tat have also been proven useful Cultivation arch, cultivation tower and cultivation bag, Gampaha, Sri Lanka. Source: RANASINGHE (2008) Cultivation umbrella, cultivation bangle and cultivation tat, Gampaha, Sri Lanka. Source: RANASINGHE (2008) 7

8 3. Design Principals Few Different Vertical Garden Designs
A variety of different substructures like cultivation ladders, pyramids or racks can be designed and constructed to grow plants vertically Cultivation Ladder, Cagayan de Oro, Philippines. Source: R. Gensch Cultivation ladder, cultivation pyramid, cultivation rack, Gampaha, Sri Lanka. Source: RANASINGHE (2008) 8

9 3. Design Principals Few Different Vertical Garden Designs
Walls, murals and exterior walls of houses are also an often used as a vertical gardening alternative either just as beautification of the wall or to grow vegetables and other crops along the wall. Either the wall will be modified with additional bricks or holders can be used for growing plants on the surface of the wall. Plants should be selected according to the orientation of the wall. Cultivation wall, cultivation holder, Gampaha, Sri Lanka Source: RANASINGHE (2008) 9

10 4. Operation and Maintenance
To make sure plants do grow well on vertical surfaces regular water and nutrient supply needs to be ensured. Irrigation techniques like bottle irrigation or regular watering with watering cans and alike can be used. Essential plant nutrients like Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium should be applied according to the needs of the plants, this can either be done by adding synthetic fertilizers or by making use of compost, vermicompost and/or human urine or other organic fertilizer sources The use of treated or partly treated greywater and reclaimed water can also be a cost effective alternative water and nutrient source particularly in water scarce areas. 10

11 5. Applicability Vertical gardening is an excellent opportunity of growing food in areas where space is limited, particularly in densely populated urban areas. The different vertical garden technologies are an effective, simple and sustainable method of enhancing food security for urban communities, slum dwellers and other communities where agricultural production areas are limited. Most solutions can easily implemented with locally available material at low cost while it offers at the same time a livelihood opportunity and contributes to the local food security situation. 11

12 6. Advantages and Disadvantages
Low cost Minimal agricultural area required Contribution to household food security and alleviation of food shortages and poverty Reuse and recycling option for human excreta, biodegradable wastes and greywater Temperature insulation by growing plants on the walls of houses Simple and easy to understand Disadvantages: Unpleasant odours may appear during the irrigation with greywater and urine A certain amount of labour required Regular watering or irrigation system has to be in place 12

13 7. References KULABAKO R., KINOBE J., MUJUNGA J., OLWENYI S., SLEYTR K. (2009): Greywater use in peri-urban households in Kitgum, Uganda. Kampala, Uganda: Makere University, Department of Civil Engineering PASCAL P., MWENDE E. (2009): A garden in a Sack: Experiences in Kibera, Nairobi. In: Urban Agriculture Magazine, Vol. 21, p RANASINGHE T.T. (2008): Review of UPA activities in Gampaha, Sri Lanka: lessons learned. Sri Lanka: Western Province Department of Agriculture (WPDOA) 13

14 “Linking up Sustainable Sanitation, Water Management & Agriculture”
SSWM is an initiative supported by: Compiled by:

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