Presentation on theme: "Beat Stauffer, international seecon gmbh"— Presentation transcript:
1 Beat Stauffer, international seecon gmbh LandfillsBeat Stauffer, international seecon gmbh
2 Copy it, adapt it, use it – but acknowledge the source! Copyright & DisclaimerCopy it, adapt it, use it – but acknowledge the source!CopyrightIncluded in the SSWM Toolbox are materials from various organisations and sources. Those materials are open source. Following the open-source concept for capacity building and non-profit use, copying and adapting is allowed provided proper acknowledgement of the source is made (see below). The publication of these materials in the SSWM Toolbox does not alter any existing copyrights. Material published in the SSWM Toolbox for the first time follows the same open-source concept, with all rights remaining with the original authors or producing organisations.To view an official copy of the the Creative Commons Attribution Works 3.0 Unported License we build upon, visit This agreement officially states that:You are free to:Share - to copy, distribute and transmit this document Remix - to adapt this document. We would appreciate receiving a copy of any changes that you have made to improve this document.Under the following conditions:Attribution: You must always give the original authors or publishing agencies credit for the document or picture you are using.DisclaimerThe contents of the SSWM Toolbox reflect the opinions of the respective authors and not necessarily the official opinion of the funding or supporting partner organisations.Depending on the initial situations and respective local circumstances, there is no guarantee that single measures described in the toolbox will make the local water and sanitation system more sustainable. The main aim of the SSWM Toolbox is to be a reference tool to provide ideas for improving the local water and sanitation situation in a sustainable manner. Results depend largely on the respective situation and the implementation and combination of the measures described. An in-depth analysis of respective advantages and disadvantages and the suitability of the measure is necessary in every single case. We do not assume any responsibility for and make no warranty with respect to the results that may be obtained from the use of the information provided.
3 ContentsConceptHow can Landfills optimise SSWMDesign PrinciplesTreatment EfficiencyOperation and MaintenanceApplicabilityPros and ConsReferences
4 Sustainability of Landfills 1. ConceptSustainability of LandfillsSource: SUSANA on Flickr 2009Source: WASTE INCINERATION (2010) and AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK (2002)
5 Sustainability of Landfills 1. ConceptSustainability of LandfillsSource: SUSANA on Flickr 2009Landfilling is the least preferred method in the hierarchy of integrated solid waste management.Source: WASTE INCINERATION (2010) and AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK (2002)
6 Is a Landfill an Open Dump? 1. ConceptIs a Landfill an Open Dump?Source: SUSANA on Flickr 2009
7 Is a Landfill an Open Dump? 1. ConceptIs a Landfill an Open Dump?Source: SUSANA on Flickr 2009Source: LATROBE CITY COUNCIL (2005)It is not an open dump, it is an engineered facility in order to protect the environment and human health!
8 1. Concept Types of Landfills Open Dump: Waste is discharge open without any managementBasic Landfill:Waste is discharged in a pit and covered every dayEngineered Landfill:Liner, cover, leachate treatment and gas extraction (energy production or flared)Bioreactor Landfill:Acceleration of decomposition and creation of a conditions for microbiological activities -> produced gas is used for energy production.
9 Engineered Landfills in Contrast to Open Dumps 2. How it can optimise SSWMEngineered Landfills in Contrast to Open DumpsCover layer avoids spreading of waste, pathogens, odourGas extraction well control and reuse of biogas (mainly CO2 and CH4) for energy productionLiner system avoids a contamination of ground waterLeachate system collection and treatment of fluid effluentGroundwater monitoring on-going information about the groundwater qualitySource: LATROBE CITY COUNCIL (2005)
10 Basic Landfill (Emergency Landfill) (HARVEY et al. 2002) 3. Design PrinciplesBasic Landfill (Emergency Landfill) (HARVEY et al. 2002)Pit should be backfilled with excavated soil every day.Site should be agreed with local population and authorities.Site should be fenced.At least 1 km downwind from the nearest dwellings.Source: HARVEY et al. (2002)
11 Engineered Landfill (UNEP 2002) 3. Design PrinciplesEngineered Landfill (UNEP 2002)The capacity is planned and the site is chosen based on an environmental risk assessment study.Gas is flared or used for energy production.Source: UNEP (2002)
12 Bioreactor Landfill (WM 2004) 3. Design PrinciplesBioreactor Landfill (WM 2004)Acceleration of biologic decomposition (organic fraction).Promoting conditions necessary for the microorganisms (moisture content).Liquids must be added (leachate, stormwater, sewerage sludge).Gas is collected to produce electrical energy.Design includes liner, cover, leachate system, groundwater monitoring.Systems: aerobic, anaerobic, aerobic-anaerobic, facultative (to control high ammonia concentration).Source: WM (2004)
13 Treatment of Leachate (SA’AT 2006) 3. Design PrinciplesTreatment of Leachate (SA’AT 2006)Without proper cleaning, leachate will cause environmental problems. Potential methods for treatment:Recirculation of leachate through the landfillDisposal off-site to sewer for treatment as an admixture with domestic sewagePhysical-chemical treatmentMembrane filtrationReverse osmosisAnaerobic biological treatmentAerobic biological treatmentConstructed wetlandsDesign of a vertical flow constructed wetland. Source: MOREL & DIENER (2006)
14 Treatment and Health Aspect 4. Treatment EfficiencyTreatment and Health AspectOpen DumpBasic LandfillEngineered LandfillBioreactor Landfillhealth and environmental protection
15 Treatment and Health Aspect 4. Treatment EfficiencyTreatment and Health AspectOpen Dump slow decomposition; spreading of waste, pathogens and odour; no liner, no coverBasic Landfill better decomposition; cover avoids spreading of waste and breeding of insects; leaching may occurEngineered Landfill advanced decomposition; cover; liner; leachate, stormwater and gas managementBioreactor Landfill acceleration of decomposition; cover; liner; leachate and stormwater management; energy production
16 5. Operation and Maintenance (UNEP 2002; GROSS n.y.; ITRC 2006) Requires dedicated operators.Waste has to be covered each day.Proper leachate management.Cover must be resistant to erosion.Once capacity is reached, the bottom (cover layer) has to be controlled regularly to avoid toxic effluents/emissions.Bioreactor landfills require a more complex set of O&M.
17 6. ApplicabilityLandfilling is one of the most widely employed methods for the disposal of municipal solid waste. (SA’AT 2006)Depending on the community/city (financial, knowledge, interests)Enough land must be available.Compared to other discharge possibilities costs are lower.Landfill should always be lined, correctly covered and maintained to avoid a contamination of the environment and to minimise health risks for locals.Don’t forget:The best discharge possibility is to produce less waste and to reuse/recycle as much as possible!
18 7. Pros and Cons Advantages: An effective disposal method if well-managed.A sanitary disposal method if managed effectively.Energy production and fast degradation if designed as a bioreactor landfill.Disadvantages:Fills up quickly if waste is not reduced and reusable waste is not collected separately and recycled.A reasonable large area required.Risk of groundwater contamination if not sealed correctly or the liner system is damaged.High costs for high-tech landfills.If the management is bad, there is a risk that the landfill degenerates into an open dump.After the end of disposal the landfill needs still O&M and monitoring for the next 50 to 100 years.
19 8. ReferencesAFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK (Editor) (2002): Study on Solid Waste Management Options for Africa. Abidjan: African Development Bank. URL: [ ]GROSS, B.A. (n.y.): Landfill Cover, Design and Operation. Pdf Presentation. U.S.A.: GeoSyntec Consultants. URL: [Accessed: ]HARVEY, P.; BAGHRI, S.; REED, B. (2002): Emergency Sanitation: Assessment and Programme Design. Loughborough: Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC). URL: [Accessed: ]ITRC (Editor) (2006): Characterisation, Design, Construction, and Monitoring of Bioreactor Landfills. Technical/Regulatory Guideline. Washington, DC: Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council. URL: [Accessed: ]LATROBE CITY COUNCIL (Editor) (2005): Latrobe City Landfill. Morwell: Latrobe City Council. URL: [Accessed: ]UNEP (Editor) (2002): A Directory of Environmentally Sound Technologies for the Integrated Management of Solid, Liquid and Hazardous Waste for Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in the Pacific Region. The Hague: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). URL: the-integrated-management-of-solid-liquid-and-hazardous-waste-for-small-island-developing-states-sids-in-the-pacific- region/view [Accessed: ]WASTEWATER SYSTEM (n.y): Wastewater Sludge Incineration Technologies. WasteWater System. URL: [Accessed: ]WM (Editor) (2004): The Bioreactor Landfill. Cincinnati: Waste Management (WM) Bioreactor Programm. URL: [Accessed: ]
20 “Linking up Sustainable Sanitation, Water Management & Agriculture” SSWM is an initiative supported by:Created by: