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Presentation Tricks Find this presentation and more on: Contents 1.Introduction 2.Ecosystem Services 3.Changes in Ecosystem Services and Human Well-Being 4.Substitutability and Well-Being 5.Drivers of Ecosystem Change 6.Wetland Services Under Stress 7.References 3
Presentation Tricks Find this presentation and more on: What are Ecosystems? (1/2) Ecosystem: Dynamic complex and interaction of living organisms (humans, animals, plants, microorganisms,..) and the non- living environment (air, water, mineral soil,...) Interaction of living organisms and the non-living environment through water cycle, nutrient cycle and energy flows 4 1. Introduction Example: interaction between water and plant through water cycle. Source: ion.html [Accessed: ] ion.html
Presentation Tricks Find this presentation and more on: What are Ecosystems? (2/2) 5 1. Introduction Example: The Marine Ecosystem Source: ecosystem-2/ [Accessed: ] ecosystem-2/
Presentation Tricks Find this presentation and more on: Humans within the Ecosystems (1/2) 6 1. Introduction Depend entirely on a functioning ecosystem e.g. quantity and quality of water Have a major impact on the health of an ecosystem e.g. exploitation of groundwater through excessive irrigation e.g. pollution through inadequate sanitation Humans and the water cycle. Source: services/water-demand-management/water- distribution/the-water-cycle.html [Accessed: ] services/water-demand-management/water- distribution/the-water-cycle.html
Presentation Tricks Find this presentation and more on: Humans within the Ecosystems (2/2) 7 1. Introduction Therefore: Sustainable sanitation and water management are crucial for a more sustainable ecosystem management.
Presentation Tricks Find this presentation and more on: Types of Ecosystem Services (1/2) Ecosystem Services = benefits people obtain from ecosystems Provisioning services Products from ecosystems: e.g. Food, timber, water Regulating services Benefits from regulation of ecosystem processes: e.g. Water purification, control of climate, diseases, floods Cultural services Spiritual and recreational benefits Supporting services Maintain the three other services: e.g. Water and nutrient cycles, photosynthesis, crop pollination 8 2. Ecosystem Services
Presentation Tricks Find this presentation and more on: Types of Ecosystem Services (2/2) Demand for these services have been growing over the last decades Ecosystem Services Negative impact on other services like water regulation Enhancement of production of crops, livestock, aquaculture Unsustainable water withdrawals for irrigation of agricultural land % of global irrigation withdrawals are estimated to be unsustainable. Source: MA (2005).
Presentation Tricks Find this presentation and more on: Components of Human Well-Being General components are: Security Basic material for a good life Health Good social relations Freedom in choice and action, which is enhanced by the previous components Changes in Ecosystems and Human Well-Being
Presentation Tricks Find this presentation and more on: Shortages of Ecosystem Services Affect Human Well-Being Changes in Ecosystems and Human Well-Being Linkages between ecosystem services and human well-being. Source: MA (2005).
Presentation Tricks Find this presentation and more on: Only Partial Substitutability! Substitutability and Human Well-Being e.g. Substitutability of natural water purification: Limited amount of clean water from water filters BUT dependence on economic status!
Presentation Tricks Find this presentation and more on: Indirect drivers (1/2) Drivers of Ecosystem Change Demography: global population doubled in the past 40 years Economy: increase of global economic activity sevenfold between 1950 and 2000 Taxes and subsidies increase resource consumption (e.g. Increase food production increase water consumption) Socio-Politics: a.o. Public participation increase in multilateral environmental agreements
Presentation Tricks Find this presentation and more on: Indirect drivers (2/2) Drivers of Ecosystem Change Culture and Religion: influence on consumption behaviour and environmental stewardship Science and Technology: e.g. Advances in fishing industry depletion of marine fish stock
Presentation Tricks Find this presentation and more on: Direct drivers Drivers of Ecosystem Change Habitat change In terrestrial ecosystems especially land-cover change to cropland Overexploitation Overfishing in marine ecosystems Invasive species Pollution Esp. Freshwater ecosystems Climate change
Presentation Tricks Find this presentation and more on: Human Reliance on Wetland Services Wetland Services Under Stress Population growth more people rely on wetland services Freshwater supply Natural water purification Aquifer recharge
Presentation Tricks Find this presentation and more on: Agriculture and Wetland Services Wetland Services Under Stress Population growth more people rely on wetland services This can result in: Regional water scarcity due to irrigation Eutrophication of water bodies through excessive fertilization Source: s/water-infrastructure/ [Accessed: ] s/water-infrastructure/ Source: [Accessed: ]
Presentation Tricks Find this presentation and more on: MA (2005): Ecosystems and Human Well-Being. Synthesis. Washington: World Resources Institute. URL: [Accessed: ] References
Presentation Tricks 19 Linking up Sustainable Sanitation, Water Management & Agriculture SSWM is an initiative supported by: Created by: