Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Wells 1 Marco Bruni, seecon international gmbh. Wells Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Copy it, adapt it, use it – but.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Wells 1 Marco Bruni, seecon international gmbh. Wells Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Copy it, adapt it, use it – but."— Presentation transcript:

1 Wells 1 Marco Bruni, seecon international gmbh

2 Wells Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Copy it, adapt it, use it – but acknowledge the source! Copyright Included in the SSWM Toolbox are materials from various organisations and sources. Those materials are open source. Following the open- source concept for capacity building and non-profit use, copying and adapting is allowed provided proper acknowledgement of the source is made (see below). The publication of these materials in the SSWM Toolbox does not alter any existing copyrights. Material published in the SSWM Toolbox for the first time follows the same open-source concept, with all rights remaining with the original authors or producing organisations. To view an official copy of the the Creative Commons Attribution Works 3.0 Unported License we build upon, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0. This agreement officially states that: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0 You are free to: Share - to copy, distribute and transmit this document Remix - to adapt this document. We would appreciate receiving a copy of any changes that you have made to improve this document. Under the following conditions: Attribution: You must always give the original authors or publishing agencies credit for the document or picture you are using. Disclaimer The contents of the SSWM Toolbox reflect the opinions of the respective authors and not necessarily the official opinion of the funding or supporting partner organisations. Depending on the initial situations and respective local circumstances, there is no guarantee that single measures described in the toolbox will make the local water and sanitation system more sustainable. The main aim of the SSWM Toolbox is to be a reference tool to provide ideas for improving the local water and sanitation situation in a sustainable manner. Results depend largely on the respective situation and the implementation and combination of the measures described. An in-depth analysis of respective advantages and disadvantages and the suitability of the measure is necessary in every single case. We do not assume any responsibility for and make no warranty with respect to the results that may be obtained from the use of the information provided. Copyright & Disclaimer

3 Wells Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Contents 1.Introduction 2.How Can Wells Optimise my Local Water System? 3.Prospecting for Groundwater Sources 4.Different Types of Wells and their Characteristics 5.Basic Design and Construction Principles 6.Operation and Maintenance 7.Applicability 8.Advantages and Disadvantages 9.References 3

4 Wells Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Variability of the Groundwater Table 4 1. Introduction Source: SMET & WIJK (2002) Infiltration of water into an aquifer during the wet season Infiltration of water into an aquifer during the dry season

5 Wells Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Groundwater Withdrawal from Wells by Means of Buckets or Pumps 5 1. Introduction Source: IWMI (n.y.); NE (n.y.); WATER CHARITY (n.y.); BAUMANN (2011) Pumps Rope & Bucket Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/foodforthepoor/61002 18694/sizes/z/in/photostream/ [Accessed: 17.05.2012] http://www.flickr.com/photos/foodforthepoor/61002 18694/sizes/z/in/photostream/

6 Wells Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Health Aspects 6 2. How Can Wells Optimise my Local Water System? Source: BAUMANN (2011) A properly constructed well can improve a communitys water supply substantially. High quality drinking water No or just minor purification required Many low-cost and low- tech digging and drilling options available

7 Wells Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Where Should I Look for Groundwater? Villagers and members of the neighbouring communities can be a good source of information on the presence of shallow groundwater. Also, certain types of vegetation (e.g. banana plants, bulrushes, sugar can, date palms) can indicate presence of groundwater (COLLINS 2000). Often, existing wells in close proximity indicate the presence of groundwater. If technical equipment is available, test borings can give detailed information on the groundwater level. 7 3. Prospecting for Groundwater Sources Source: http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/t humblarge_553/1288894832745DF 3.jpg [Accessed: 18.05.2012] http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/t humblarge_553/1288894832745DF 3.jpg

8 Wells Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Two Main Types of Wells 8 4. Different Types of Wells and their Performance Dug Wells Drilled Wells Diameter: +/- 1.2m Length: 3 – 20m Diameter: +/- 50mm Length: 10 – 50m (200m)

9 Wells Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Location Wells should not be constructed close to potential sources of contamination, e.g. pit latrines, livestock farming, fuel/pesticide/ fertiliser storage, etc. Well should be located in close proximity to the actual point of water use 9 5. Basic Design and Construction Principles Source: BUCHANAN et al. (2010)

10 Wells Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Dug Well: Elements 10 5. Basic Design and Construction Principles Source: SMET & WIJK (2002) Well Head Well Shaft Intake

11 Wells Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Dug Well: Excavation Excavation is done manually with pick and shovel Lining is most often necessary to protect the well from collapsing and preventing subsequent contamination of the well Materials for lining: prefabricated concrete rings, stones, bricks, masonry, etc. 11 5. Basic Design and Construction Principles Source: : http://cloud.globalgiving.org/pfil/7109/Handdug_Well2_Grid7.jpg [Accessed: 14.03.2011]http://cloud.globalgiving.org/pfil/7109/Handdug_Well2_Grid7.jpg

12 Wells Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Drilled Well: Drilling a)Basic hand-drilling techniques b) High-tech machine-drilling 12 5. Basic Design and Construction Principles Source: http://www.nigerwaterforlife.org/images/upload/IMAG0010.j pg [Accessed: 27.03.2012] http://www.nigerwaterforlife.org/images/upload/IMAG0010.j pg Source: http://i01.i.aliimg.com/photo/v0/106324951/water_well_drilling _and_borehole_rig_machine.jpg [Accessed: 17.05.2012] http://i01.i.aliimg.com/photo/v0/106324951/water_well_drilling _and_borehole_rig_machine.jpg

13 Wells Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Drilled Well: Drilling – Many Different Techniques a)Basic Hand-drilling techniques b) Machine-drilling 13 5. Basic Design and Construction Principles Source: ELSON & SHAW (1995) Source: WURZEL (2000) Augering Jetting Sludging Percussion Machine- drilling

14 Wells Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Drilled Well: Completion Completion of a well involve construction of a: Well casing (prevents the well from collapse and seepage of contaminants). Well screen (holds back sediments while allowing water to infiltrate the well) Gravel pack (prevents the well screen from becoming clogged) Sanitary seal & head works (prevents surficial contamination) 14 5. Basic Design and Construction Principles Source: WATERAID (2008)

15 Wells Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Well Protection Wells and aquifers are susceptible to contamination. Contaminants can either enter from the opening or from the sides of the excavation. Water source protection involves: Interdiction of all activities that can potentially cause contamination close to the well (e.g. pit latrines, livestock farming, fuel/pesticide/ fertiliser storage, etc) Wellhead protection involves: Drainage Surficial seal: an apron Impermeable lining (dug wells) or casing (drilled wells) Securing functioning of the pump 15 5. Basic Design and Construction Principles Source: NABUUR (n.y.)

16 Wells Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Dug Well 16 Structural maintenance includes: Checking the apron for cracks, Securing the inspection cover, Improving the yield by deepening or removing infiltrated sand particles, and the Maintenance of the lifting device. Equally, securing hygienic operation is essential. This involves: Protection and cleaning of the area (e.g. fencing and covering), Checking water quality and disinfecting if necessary, Monitoring the effects of withdrawal on environment and surrounding areas, and Educating water users in proper operation of the well. 6. Operation and Maintenance

17 Wells Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Drilled Well 17 Drilled wells are easy to operate and basically not in need for maintenance. However, as a drilled well always include a manual or mechanised pump, maintenance of the lifting is critical! 6. Operation and Maintenance Source: http://www.edgeoutreach.com/sites/edgeoutreach.com/files/HaitiHPRTrainers.j pg [Accessed: 18.05.2012] http://www.edgeoutreach.com/sites/edgeoutreach.com/files/HaitiHPRTrainers.j pg

18 Wells Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Drilled Well 18 Can serve as a water supply for a rural community, depending on the performance Low-tech solution particularly for rural communities Can serve as water supply for single households, for small rural communities as for more urban areas, depending on the size of the well (depth & diameter). Manual drilling is applicable in alluvial soils up to 40 metres. A pump must be available and frequently maintained 7. Applicability

19 Wells Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Dug Well 19 Advantages: High degree of involvement of the local community during the whole process Under supervision, no skilled workers are required Simple equipment sufficient for both construction and maintenance Low cost for construction and O&M Involvement of private sector possible (local well diggers) Yield can be increased after construction Reservoir included (large diameter) Disadvantages: Long construction phase Dangerous excavation Motorised pump (power source) often required to lower the water table during construction Application restricted to regions with rather soft geological formation and relatively high groundwater levels Alteration of groundwater level can adversely affect the surrounding environment High susceptibility for contamination People (i.e. children) can fall in if the well is uncovered 8. Advantages and Disadvantages

20 Wells Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Drilled Well 20 Advantages: Quicker and cheaper to sink than hand-dug wells Less susceptible to contamination No dewatering during sinking required Less lining material required Safer in construction and use The well itself needs barely maintenance Many simple drilling techniques available suiting many geological conditions Disadvantages: Skilled staff and experts required for drilling Pump required, which needs appropriate operation and maintenance Lower yield than hand-dug wells (smaller diameter) Overexploitation may lead to adverse effects on the environment Arsenic pollution may occur More technical equipment and skills necessary for construction No integrated storage capacity / recharge during periods of low abstraction 8. Advantages and Disadvantages

21 Wells Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info 21 9. References BAUMANN, E. (2011): Low-cost Hand Pumps. St. Gallen: Rural Water Supply Network (RWSN). URL: http://www.rwsn.ch/documentation/prcollector.2009-04-05.2482958002/skatdocumentation.2011-07-01.0268979788/file [Accessed: 02.04.2012]. http://www.rwsn.ch/documentation/prcollector.2009-04-05.2482958002/skatdocumentation.2011-07-01.0268979788/file BUCHANAN, B.; DE LA CRUZ, N; MACPHERSON, J.; WILLIAMSON, K. (2010): Water Wells that Last for Generations. Edmonton: Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development. URL: http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/wwg404 [Accessed: 23.04.2012].http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/wwg404 ELSON, B.; SHAW, R. (1995): Simple Drilling Methods. Leicestershire: Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University. URL: http://www.lboro.ac.uk/well/resources/technical-briefs/43-simple-drilling-methods.pdf [Accessed: 21.03.2012].http://www.lboro.ac.uk/well/resources/technical-briefs/43-simple-drilling-methods.pdf IWMI (n.y.): Diesel pump in operation. Colombo: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). URL: http://awm- solutions.iwmi.org/motorized-pumps.aspx [Accessed: 25.04.2012].http://awm- solutions.iwmi.org/motorized-pumps.aspx NABUUR (n.y.): Protected dug well in Uganda. Amersfoort: Nabuur. URL: http://www.nabuur.com/en/village/nakyerongosa/project/task/integrated-community-managed-water-hygiene-and-sanitation- improvem [Accessed: 15.03.2012]. http://www.nabuur.com/en/village/nakyerongosa/project/task/integrated-community-managed-water-hygiene-and-sanitation- improvem NE (n.y.): Solar Water Pump. Lahore: National Engineers (NE). URL: http://www.ne.com.pk/uploads/images/Gallery/pump/DSCN0054.jpg [Accessed: 26.04.2012]. http://www.ne.com.pk/uploads/images/Gallery/pump/DSCN0054.jpg SMET, J. (Editor); WIJK, C. van (Editor) (2002): Small Community Water Supplies: Technology, People and Partnership: Groundwater Withdrawal - Chapter 10. The Hague: International Water and Sanitation Centre (IRC). URL: http://www.irc.nl/page/1917 [Accessed: 29.02.2012]. http://www.irc.nl/page/1917 WATERAID (2008): Technology Notes. London: Wateraid. URL: http://www.wateraid.org/documents/plugin_documents/technology_notes_2008.pdf [Accessed: 12.03.2011] http://www.wateraid.org/documents/plugin_documents/technology_notes_2008.pdf WATER CHARITY (n.y.): Deep-well hand piston pump including apron and drain in Wallalan, Upper Badibu District, Gambia. Crestline: Water Charity. URL: http://appropriateprojects.com/images/jorgensen/7.jpg [Accessed: 02.04.2012].http://appropriateprojects.com/images/jorgensen/7.jpg WURZEL, P. (2001): Drilling Boreholes for Handpumps. St. Gallen: Swiss Centre for Development Cooperation in Technology and Management (SKAT). URL: http://www.skat.ch/publications/prarticle.2005-09-29.5069774463/prarticle.2006-11- 02.5180575226/skatpublication.2006-11-02.0404244520/file [Accessed: 22.03.2012].http://www.skat.ch/publications/prarticle.2005-09-29.5069774463/prarticle.2006-11- 02.5180575226/skatpublication.2006-11-02.0404244520/file

22 Wells Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info 22 Linking up Sustainable Sanitation, Water Management & Agriculture SSWM is an initiative supported by: Created by:


Download ppt "Wells 1 Marco Bruni, seecon international gmbh. Wells Find this presentation and more on: www.ssswm.info.www.ssswm.info Copy it, adapt it, use it – but."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google