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Direct use of Biogas for Cooking/Heating/Lighting

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Presentation on theme: "Direct use of Biogas for Cooking/Heating/Lighting"— Presentation transcript:

1 Direct use of Biogas for Cooking/Heating/Lighting
Dexter Lo, Maria Isabel R. Dumlao, Lou Menard Casero, Xavier University

2 Copy it, adapt it, use it – but acknowledge the source!
Copyright & Disclaimer Copy it, adapt it, use it – but acknowledge the source! Copyright Included in the SSWM Toolbox are materials from various organisations and sources. Those materials are open source. Following the open-source concept for capacity building and non-profit use, copying and adapting is allowed provided proper acknowledgement of the source is made (see below). The publication of these materials in the SSWM Toolbox does not alter any existing copyrights. Material published in the SSWM Toolbox for the first time follows the same open-source concept, with all rights remaining with the original authors or producing organisations. To view an official copy of the the Creative Commons Attribution Works 3.0 Unported License we build upon, visit This agreement officially states that: You are free to: Share - to copy, distribute and transmit this document   Remix - to adapt this document. We would appreciate receiving a copy of any changes that you have made to improve this document. Under the following conditions: Attribution: You must always give the original authors or publishing agencies credit for the document or picture you are using. Disclaimer The contents of the SSWM Toolbox reflect the opinions of the respective authors and not necessarily the official opinion of the funding or supporting partner organisations. Depending on the initial situations and respective local circumstances, there is no guarantee that single measures described in the toolbox will make the local water and sanitation system more sustainable. The main aim of the SSWM Toolbox is to be a reference tool to provide ideas for improving the local water and sanitation situation in a sustainable manner. Results depend largely on the respective situation and the implementation and combination of the measures described. An in-depth analysis of respective advantages and disadvantages and the suitability of the measure is necessary in every single case. We do not assume any responsibility for and make no warranty with respect to the results that may be obtained from the use of the information provided.

3 How can it optimize SSWM Applicability Advantages and disadvantages
Contents Concept How can it optimize SSWM Applicability Advantages and disadvantages References 3

4 1. Concept Background Biogas is a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide and other trace gasses, which can easily be transformed to light or heat. The gas is produced by anaerobic digestion of organic material, usually animal dung, human excreta and crop residue in a biogas reactor will usually be piped from the top of the tank to a biogas cooking stove and/or biogas lights. Composition: Methane (65-70%) Carbon dioxide (25-30%) Varying quantities of water and hydrogen sulphide Other compounds such as ammonia, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon monoxide (adapted from ASHDEN (2004), TILLEY et al. (2008)) Anaerobic Biogas Reactor. Source: TILLEY et al. (2008) 4

5 1. Concept Working principle
The main prerequisite of biogas use is the availability of specially designed biogas burners or modified consumer appliances. Can be used in stoves for cooking and in gas lamps for lighting, refrigerators and incubators, coffee roasters, driers, baking ovens and water heaters, chicken or piglet heaters, power engines for milling or generating electricity In some cases, especially at larger scale, further treatment or conditioning of biogas is necessary before it is ready to use (Treatment aims to remove water, hydrogen sulphide or carbon dioxide from the raw gas) Safety measures are needed, especially to reduce the risk of explosion in case of leakages. 5

6 2. Description of the Measure/Tool/Approach
Examples Running a gas lamp from biogas, Vietnam. Source: PBPO Biogas stove in kitchen, India, Source: D. Fulford 6

7 2. Description of the Measure/Tool/Approach
Examples Women cooking with biogas, Gorkha, Nepal Source: Practical Action, Rajesh KC 7

8 2. Description of the Measure/Tool/Approach
Examples Ordinary pressure lamp that had been modified for biogas use, Kenya. Source: Daraja Kenya 8

9 2. How can it optimize SSWM
The use of biogas for cooking, heating, lighting can help in optimizing your local water management and sanitation system and make it more sustainable by: Making productive use of the energy contained in human waste Make households less dependent on other energy sources Making cooking, lighting and heating saver, cleaner and easier in households 9

10 3. Applicability Easily adaptable and can be applied at the household level biodigesters are appropriate for dense housing areas or public institutions that generate a lot of sludge, but where space is limited Biogas production is less appropriate for colder climates as gas production is not economically feasible below 15°C (TILLEY et al. 2008). The use of Biogas makes cooking, lighting and heating much more saver, cleaner and easier in households. Especially if this region suffers from a lack of fuel wood. 10

11 4. Advantages and Disadvantages
Generation of a renewable energy source No/less electrical energy required Saving of natural resources (e.g.wood) Simple and didactic process design Reduces workload in collecting firewood and in cooking Deforestation and soil erosion can be reduced Cooking is quicker and easier than cooking with firewood Disadvantages: Requires expert design and skilled construction Biogas lamps have lower efficiency compared to using kerosene 11

12 5. References ASHDEN (2004): Biogas cooking stoves for villages on the fringes of the tiger reserve in Ranthambhore Park. London, GB: The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy TILLEY, E., LÜTHI, C., MOREL, A., ZURBRÜGG, C., SCHERTENLEIB, R. (2008): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG) & Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) 12

13 “Linking up Sustainable Sanitation, Water Management & Agriculture”
SSWM is an initiative supported by: Compiled by:

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