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Water Source Protection 1 Marco Bruni, seecon international gmbh.

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Presentation on theme: "Water Source Protection 1 Marco Bruni, seecon international gmbh."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water Source Protection 1 Marco Bruni, seecon international gmbh

2 Water Source Protection Find this presentation and more on: Copy it, adapt it, use it – but acknowledge the source! Copyright Included in the SSWM Toolbox are materials from various organisations and sources. Those materials are open source. Following the open- source concept for capacity building and non-profit use, copying and adapting is allowed provided proper acknowledgement of the source is made (see below). The publication of these materials in the SSWM Toolbox does not alter any existing copyrights. Material published in the SSWM Toolbox for the first time follows the same open-source concept, with all rights remaining with the original authors or producing organisations. To view an official copy of the the Creative Commons Attribution Works 3.0 Unported License we build upon, visit This agreement officially states that: You are free to: Share - to copy, distribute and transmit this document Remix - to adapt this document. We would appreciate receiving a copy of any changes that you have made to improve this document. Under the following conditions: Attribution: You must always give the original authors or publishing agencies credit for the document or picture you are using. Disclaimer The contents of the SSWM Toolbox reflect the opinions of the respective authors and not necessarily the official opinion of the funding or supporting partner organisations. Depending on the initial situations and respective local circumstances, there is no guarantee that single measures described in the toolbox will make the local water and sanitation system more sustainable. The main aim of the SSWM Toolbox is to be a reference tool to provide ideas for improving the local water and sanitation situation in a sustainable manner. Results depend largely on the respective situation and the implementation and combination of the measures described. An in-depth analysis of respective advantages and disadvantages and the suitability of the measure is necessary in every single case. We do not assume any responsibility for and make no warranty with respect to the results that may be obtained from the use of the information provided. Copyright & Disclaimer

3 Water Source Protection Find this presentation and more on: Contents 1.Introduction 2.Health Aspects - How Can Water Source Protection Optimise my Local Water System? 3.Characteristics of Pathogens and Contaminants 4.Approaches to Water Source Protection/ Water Protection Plan 5.Surface Water Source Protection Measures 6.Groundwater Source Protection Measures 7.References 3

4 Water Source Protection Find this presentation and more on: Need for Water Source Protection 4 1. Introduction

5 Water Source Protection Find this presentation and more on: How Can Water Source Protection Optimise my Local Water System? Water source protection involves the protection of surface water sources (e.g. lakes, rivers, man-made reservoirs) and groundwater sources (e.g. springs, dug wells, drilled wells) to avoid water contamination. The very slow flow of groundwater makes rehabilitation of contaminated aquifers both costly and time-intensive. Establishing adequate water source protection has been recognised as the most suitable and cost-effective method to keep contaminants out of drinking water and making costly water purification measures and construction of new wells unnecessary Health Aspects

6 Water Source Protection Find this presentation and more on: Types of Pathogens and Contaminants 6 3. Characteristics of Pathogens and Contaminants Pathogens Bacteria e.g. Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter Viruses e.g. Rotavirus, Hepatitis Parasitic protozoa e.g. Giardia Helminths (worms) e.g. Trichuris trichiura Contaminants Inorganic chemicals e.g. nitrate, arsenic, fluoride, chloride Organic chemicals e.g. petro-chemicals (oil, diesel), solvents, drugs, pesticides (Heavy) metals e.g. cadmium, copper, lead, mercury

7 Water Source Protection Find this presentation and more on: Sources of Pathogens and Contaminants 7 Source: BUCHANAN et al. (2010) 3. Characteristics of Pathogens and Contaminants Source: CONSERVATION ONTARION (2009) Underground storage tanks Chemical storage Accidental spills of hazardous materials Spreading of sewage treatment sludge Septic systems Animal feedlots Storage and spreading of road salt Underground pipelines or sewers Use and spilling of fertilisers and pesticides Landfills Private and abandoned wells

8 Water Source Protection Find this presentation and more on: Dispersion of Pathogens and Contaminants 8 3. Characteristics of Pathogens and Contaminants Source: WAL (2010) Migration of contaminants in an unconfined (left) and a confined (right) aquifer. Adapted from FREEZE et al. (n.y.) Movement of insoluble contaminants in ground water: Oil spills (lighter than water) accumulate on the water table and spread horizontally.

9 Water Source Protection Find this presentation and more on: Prevent, Treat, Restore As many surface water sources are used for drinking water purposes, protection is vital. Generally, three basic strategies exist for protection: Prevention: No discharge of waste, pollutants or untreated water from domestic, industrial or agricultural use; optimised water use and practices in agriculture in order to stop nutrients from entering aquatic systems (e.g. establishing buffer zones). Treatment: treatment of polluted water prior to discharge; Stormwater management: Ensuring that run-off can not transport pollutants untreated into water bodies. Restore Ecosystems: Enable or support natural rehabilitation processes Surface Water Source Protection UNEP (2010)

10 Water Source Protection Find this presentation and more on: Institutional Frameworks support Implementation of Protection Implementing water source protection requires a legal framework. This usually involves a protection plan, which formulates responsibilities, specific protection measures and basic rules that apply for all community members and water source users Water Protection Plan

11 Water Source Protection Find this presentation and more on: Several Actions – One Objective Step 1: Location/ Siting of the Water Source Don’t construct the well/spring close to potential sources for contamination, stick to minimum distance rules, respectively Groundwater Source Protection Source: WSP (n.y.) Source: COLLINS (2000)

12 Water Source Protection Find this presentation and more on: Several Actions – One Objective Step 2: Construction of Spring- and Well Protection Groundwater Source Protection Source: NABUUR (n.y.) Source: SMET & WIJK (2002) Springs can be protected by installation of a spring tapping, a spring box and an adequate drainage system. Drilled and dug wells need a proper sealing. An apron guarantees that no contaminants enter the well from the access point area. An impermeable lining (for dug wells) or casing (for drilled wells) makes sure, that no close-to- surface-water enters the well. Drainage keeps the area dry

13 Water Source Protection Find this presentation and more on: Several Actions – One Objective Step 3: Fencing In a fenced, inner protection zone (with a radius of 10 – 20 m), all activities posing a risk of contamination are restricted (e.g. farming, grazing, firing, application of pesticides and fertilisers, construction of latrines, use of chemicals, etc.). An extended protection zone (at least 100m in radius) should be put up to increase protection Groundwater Source Protection Source: MEULI & WEHRLE (2001)

14 Water Source Protection Find this presentation and more on: Several Actions – One Objective Step 4: Set up Rules for all Community Members Any protection plan rises and falls with the behaviour of the community members, their attitude towards the plan and their knowledge. Besides the installation of constructional measures, simple rules should be set up and communicated by a local caretaker. Such rules can involve: Don’t defecate close to the well, Don’t let your animals graze close to the well, Don’t through any garbage into the well, etc Groundwater Source Protection

15 Water Source Protection Find this presentation and more on: Several Actions – One Objective Step 5: Management of Operation and Maintenance Only adequate operation by the water users and frequent maintenance by a local caretaker can ensure a safe long-term usability of the water point. Operation and maintenance activities are best organised through a local management plan. The remit of a caretaker involves the: Inspection, cleaning and repair of spring installations and well (e.g. cracks in the apron, leaking parts, etc.) Monitoring activities in the surrounding area Up keeping the protection zone/ repair of the fence Check for appropriate operation by users and provide health education. Check whether the basic rules are respected by the users 15 OXFAM (n.y.) 6. Groundwater Source Protection

16 Water Source Protection Find this presentation and more on: Several Actions – One Objective Step 6: Seal/Plug Abandoned and Unused Wells Abandoned wells: Can allow surface run-off to directly enter an aquifer, contaminating the aquifer and wells; Can be a physical safety threat, as they are often not marked or covered, and can pose a hazard to people or animals that might fall into them. 16 Source: MANCE (n.y.) 6. Groundwater Source Protection MANCE (n.y.)

17 Water Source Protection Find this presentation and more on: References 1/2 BUCHANAN, B.; DE LA CRUZ, N; MACPHERSON, J.; WILLIAMSON, K. (2010): Water Wells that Last for Generations. Edmonton: Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development. URL: [Accessed: ].http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/wwg404 COLLINS, S. (2000): Hand-dug Shallow Wells. St. Gallen: Swiss Centre for Development Cooperation in Technology and Management (SKAT). URL:http://www.skat.ch/publications/prarticle /prarticle /skatpublication /file [Accessed: ].http://www.skat.ch/publications/prarticle /prarticle /skatpublication /file CONSERVATION ONTARIO (2009): Wellhead Protection Areas. Newmarket: Conservation Ontario. URL: WEB.pdf [Accessed: ]. WEB.pdf FREEZE, R.A.; ATWATER, J.; LIEBSCHER, H. (N.Y.): Water Stewardship. Ground Water Resources of British Colombia. Victoria: The Province of British Columbia. URL: [Accessed: ]. MANCE, E. (n.y.): A Landowner’s Guide to Water Wall Management. Ottawa: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. URL: [Accessed: ]. MEULI, C.; WEHRLE, K. (2001): Spring Catchment. St. Gallen: Swiss Centre for Development Cooperation in Technology and Management (SKAT). URL: /skatpublication /file [Accessed: ].http://www.skat.ch/publications/prarticle /prarticle /skatpublication /file NABUUR (n.y.): Protected dug well in Uganda. Amersfoort: Nabuur. URL: improvem [Accessed: ]. improvem

18 Water Source Protection Find this presentation and more on: References 2/2 OXFAM (n.y.): Spring Protection. Technical Brief. Oxford: Oxfam International. URL: [Accessed: ]. SMET, J. (Editor); WIJK, C. van (Editor) (2002): Small Community Water Supplies: Technology, People and Partnership: Spring Water Tapping - Chapter 8. The Hague: International Water and Sanitation Centre (IRC). URL: [Accessed: ].http://www.irc.nl/page/1917 UNEP (2010): Clearing the Waters. A Focus on Water Quality Solutions. Oakland: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). URL: [Accessed: ].http://www.unep.org/PDF/Clearing_the_Waters.pdf WAL, A. van der (2010): Understanding Groundwater & Wells in Manual Drilling. Instruction Handbook for Manual Drilling Teams on Hydro-geology for Well Drilling, Well Installation and Well Development. Papendrecht: PRACTICA Foundation. URL: [Accessed: ]. WSP (n.y.): Latrines Comic. Washington D.C.: Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). URL: [Accessed: ].

19 Water Source Protection Find this presentation and more on: 19 “Linking up Sustainable Sanitation, Water Management & Agriculture” SSWM is an initiative supported by: Created by:


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