2Glossary of Terms ABS Access Panel Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene. Rigid black plastic pipe used for DWV lines.Access PanelOpening in wall behind fixture used for servicing plumbing
3Glossary of Terms Adaptor A fitting that unites different types of pipe together such as ABS to iron pipe thread.
4Glossary of Terms Cleanout Plug in a trap or drain pipe for clearing obstructions
5Glossary of Terms Closet Bend A curved fitting that connects the closet flange to the toilet drain.
6Glossary of Terms Closet Flange An anchoring ring secured to the floor to which the base of the toilet is then secured with bolts
7Glossary of Terms Coupling A fitting that joins two pieces of pipe together.
8Glossary of TermsCVPCChlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride. Rigid plastic pipe used in water supply systems where code permits.
9Glossary of Terms Elbow A fitting with two openings that changes the direction of the line. It comes in a variety of degrees from 22 1/2 to 90 degrees.
10Glossary of TermsFallProper pitch or slope of a pipe for adequate drainage.Should equal ¼” for every foot
11Glossary of Terms Fixture Flux PVC Kitchen sink, bathtub, lavatory, toilet, shower.FluxThe paste used on copper pipe and fittings preventing oxidation of the joints. PVCPolyvinyl Chloride. A rigid white or cream colored plastic pipe used in non-pressure systems such as waste and vent systems.
12Glossary of Terms Reducer A fitting that connects a pipe of one size with that of a larger or smaller size.
13Glossary of Terms Rough-in Plumbing installation completed before drywall is installed.
14Glossary of Terms Sanitary Fittings Fittings designed to join the assorted pipes in a waste and vent system.
15Glossary of Terms Soil Stack A term for the vertical stack of a waste and vent system.
16Glossary of Terms Soldering The technique of bonding copper pipe and fittings together to make a water tight supply system.
17Glossary of Terms Stop Valve A valve that controls the flow of water. Also known as a Shut off Valve.
18Glossary of TermsTeeA tee-shaped fitting with three openings used for creating branch lines.Inverted when used in vent lines.
19Glossary of TermsTrapA curved section of a fixture drain designed to hold water as a seal against sewer gases.
20Glossary of Terms Union fitting that joins two sections of pipe and is used to facilitate disassembly of a pipe without having to cut it. It is primarily used with steel pipe, but never in a waste and vent system of any material.
21Glossary of Terms Vent Stack The upper portion of the main soil stack above the top most fixture that allows harmful gases and odors to escape through the roof.
22Glossary of TermsWyeA y-shaped fitting that has three openings used to create branch lines.
23Tips From the ProsThese are general guidelines, NOT legal interpretations of the Plumbing Code.In Waste and Vent Systems, ABS and PVC cannot be mixed. Also make sure that the solvent being used is designed for the type of plastic being installed.In water supply systems, mixing dissimilar metals can cause corrosion through electrolysis and should be avoided.There are special adaptors for connecting different metals and plastics to one another, i.e. galvanized to ABS.
24Tips From the Pros Always install shut off valves for each fixture. Always secure pipe with proper straps or brackets. The pipes will bang when a faucet is suddenly turned off if not secured properly. This is called water hammer.When soldering copper lines near combustible surfaces such as wood framing members, use a heat shield. (A piece of tin or non-combustible material between the pipe and the wood.)Never touch a cleaned surface that is to be soldered with your fingers. Body oils can prevent the solder from bonding properly.
25Tips From the ProsInsulating hot water lines will conserve energy dollars. Insulating cold water lines will prevent pipes from sweating in the summer.It is advisable to stuff a rag in any drain opening after removing a fixture and/or a fixture trap to prevent gases and other odors from entering the house.When cutting into a soil stack, always brace the upper portion to keep it from sagging or falling when removing the underlying pipe.
26Tips From the ProsWhen installing a new bath or kitchen sink, attach the faucets and drain assembly prior to placing the fixture for ease of installation.In remodeling, always reattach any grounding wires – telephone, washer, etc. to the water supply system.
27Residential Plumbing System Typical residential plumbing is comprised of 2 distinct systems: the Water Supply System, the Waste & Vent System.A house on a municipal water line, the water will be carried into the house by an underground service line.In most cases, the water will pass through a meter and a shut-off valve. The shut-off valve controls the water for the whole house.Cold water is supplied to all fixtures and water heater.Hot water is distributed from the water heater to all fixtures except the toilets and outside faucets.
28Residential Plumbing System The vent portion of the system is an extension of the water system.Every fixture has a vent.Fixture vents connect to the main vent stack where they allow gases and odors to escape through the roof, as well as protect the trap seals of each fixture.
29What the Code SaysA plumbing project must comply with local regulations, however small the job.These regulations safeguard you and your community from health hazards and should be followed.Plumbing codes vary from state to state and even city to city.Be sure to check with the local building authority to find out what codes apply to your project and what permits are required.
30What the Code SaysInspections may be required and if so, it is your responsibility to arrange for them.Work that does not meet code can be ordered ripped out.Doing work without a permit is not only illegal, but may also invalidate you homeowner’s insurance.