22How hot is Hot? Cold to Cool – 60° to 98.6° Comfort Level – 98.6° - 105° (6.4° Range)Uncomfortable – 105° - 115°Dangerous – 116° and higher
23Pressure Balanced Fittings/ Temperature Limiting Controlling HotPressure Balanced Fittings/ Temperature LimitingA pressure balanced valve works differently. It adjusts to maintain equal pressure on both the cold and the hot sides. If the cold water pressure suddenly drops because someone flushes a nearby toilet, the pressure balance valve will automatically reduce the hot water flow to match the cold water flow and thereby prevent a dramatic increase in the temperature of water flowing from the showerhead. When this happens, you may experience a sudden drop in the flow rate until the cold water pressure again rises.A thermostatic valve is able to increase OR decrease the flow of hot and cold water passing through the valve. In doing so, it maintains temperature and flow rate.A pressure balanced valve is only able to reduce the flow of water on one side or the other if the pressure on the opposite side suddenly decreases. In doing so, it will decrease the flow of water passing through the valve.
39Floor Joist Modifications Notching Floor Joists, Rafters & BeamsDepth of notch not to exceed 1/6 depth of memberWidth of notch not to exceed 1/3 depth of memberNotches not permitted in the center third of memberNotches at end not to exceed ¼ depth of member
40SupplyIf supplying water to 1-2 fixtures, use ½” water lines (A ¾” tub filler could be and exception.)When supplying water to three or more fixtures or appliances use ¾” water line.
41Plumbing CodesShield Plates are required for all but cast iron pipe within 1 ½” from the nearest edge of the framing member.Plates must be 1/16” thick and extend 2” above the sole plate and below the top plate.Pipes passing through footings or concrete walls must be protected by a pipe sleeve.
42Plumbing CodesWater drain and sewer pipes must be protected from freezing. At least 12” deep and at least 6” below the frost line. (Depends on county)Testing of piping systems
51Bath Design Considerations Consider the finish when selecting toilet trim
52Bath Design Considerations The stop for a standard toilet may need to be lowered for a low profile toilet
53Bath Design Considerations Some 1-piece toilets require a ½” stop rather than the typical 3/8” stop.
54Bath Design Considerations Every fixture should have a stopBe sure that stops will not interfere with proper drawer functionDuring a remodeling project always replace existing stops, because of the low cost of stops, price should never be an issue.
55Supply Pipe Sizes House Main 1” House Service ¾” Riser ¾” Kitchen Sink ½”Ice Maker ¼”Shower ½”Tub, Spa, Whirlpool ½”, ¾”Toilet 3/8”, ½”Lavatory 3/8”, ½”Bidet /8”
60DWV Major differences between DWV and supply systems DWV pipes are large to carry solid wasteDWV pipes slope downhill so gravity will remove the wasteDWV pipes have “soft” not sharp angles and turns
61DWV PartsTraps – Curved pipes that create a water seal to prevent sewer gasses from entering the home
62DWV PartsDrain-Piping – Horizontal pipes that carry waste for the fixtures and appliances.Stacks – Vertical Pipes that drop the waste to lower levels of the homeHouse and Sewer Drains – Horizontal pipes that remove the waste from the home to the sewer or a septic tank and drain field.Vent Stacks and Pipes – Pipes that will eventually extend through the roof of the home, preventing traps from being siphoned dry.
65Materials used for DWV pipes "[Oakum is] loose fibers obtained from old ropes which were then sold to the navy or other ship-builders - it was mixed with [pine] tar and used for caulking (sealing the lining) of wooden ships.
67Materials used for DWV pipes Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene
68DWV Horizontal Drain Piping – drops ¼” per foot If 1/8” slope solid waste will settle in the pipe and create a dam.If ½” slope or more liquid waste will flow over the solid waste without moving it along.
69DWV Drain pipes vary in size 1 ¼” for small drains like bathroom lavatories1 ½’ to 2” pipes are used on larger fixtures such as kitchen sinks, showers, bathtubs and washing machines. They will also drain multiple fixtures.3” to 4” drains are the largest you will encounter in the home and are typically used for toilets and near the end of the DWV system.
78Vents Max. Distance of fixture trap from vent 1 ¼” Trap 60”
79Vents What happens when the vent is too far from the trap? Three optionsIncrease the size of the trapRe-VentBow Vent (Loop Vent)Automatic VentExample: 1 ½” trap nearest vent is 84”. Increase the trap size to 2” 96”