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Plumbing for Kitchens & Baths

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Presentation on theme: "Plumbing for Kitchens & Baths"— Presentation transcript:

1 Plumbing for Kitchens & Baths
Supply System Drain Waste and Vent

2 Supply System

3 Water Meter Housing

4 Water Meter

5 supply Water enters the house in ¾” to 1” pipe
Pressure Reduction Valve 80psi coming in Reduce to psi

6 Pressure Reduction Valve
If you don’t have a pressure reduction valve and you want to know the pressure screw one onto a hose bib


8 Hot Water Heater Supply
gas Anode rod prevents corrosion inside the tank

9 Hot Water Heater Supply
Electrical Water heating can account for 14%–25% of the energy consumed in your home



12 Water heaters with higher energy factors cost less to run
Water heaters with higher energy factors cost less to run. Use this factor to compare the operation cost of various water heaters.


14 Web Resources

15 Tankless Versus Conventional

16 Tankless Hot Water Heaters


18 Hot Water Heater Supply

19 Heat Pump Water Heater Supply



22 How hot is Hot? Cold to Cool – 60° to 98.6°
Comfort Level – 98.6° - 105° (6.4° Range) Uncomfortable – 105° - 115° Dangerous – 116° and higher

23 Pressure Balanced Fittings/ Temperature Limiting
Controlling Hot Pressure Balanced Fittings/ Temperature Limiting A pressure balanced valve works differently. It adjusts to maintain equal pressure on both the cold and the hot sides. If the cold water pressure suddenly drops because someone flushes a nearby toilet, the pressure balance valve will automatically reduce the hot water flow to match the cold water flow and thereby prevent a dramatic increase in the temperature of water flowing from the showerhead. When this happens, you may experience a sudden drop in the flow rate until the cold water pressure again rises. A thermostatic valve is able to increase OR decrease the flow of hot and cold water passing through the valve. In doing so, it maintains temperature and flow rate. A pressure balanced valve is only able to reduce the flow of water on one side or the other if the pressure on the opposite side suddenly decreases. In doing so, it will decrease the flow of water passing through the valve.

24 Controlling Hot Thermostatic Fittings

25 Supply Materials

26 Copper K L M Grades

27 M Grade – thinnest grade used inside the home
L Grade – thicker pipe used for service K Grade – thickest pipe used between water main and meter

28 Galvanized


30 Dielectric Union

31 Dielectric Union

32 CPVC (chlorinated polyvinyl chloride) supply

33 PVC Cold Water Only Schedule 40 120psi Type 1, Grade 1 (White)
Schedule psi Type 1, Grade 1 (Gray) Schedule 120 High Pressure and Corrosion Resistant Schedule 40 most common

34 PEX Polyethylene Cross-link


36 Traditional Water – Piping System

37 Manifold Distribution System


39 Floor Joist Modifications
Notching Floor Joists, Rafters & Beams Depth of notch not to exceed 1/6 depth of member Width of notch not to exceed 1/3 depth of member Notches not permitted in the center third of member Notches at end not to exceed ¼ depth of member

40 Supply If supplying water to 1-2 fixtures, use ½” water lines (A ¾” tub filler could be and exception.) When supplying water to three or more fixtures or appliances use ¾” water line.

41 Plumbing Codes Shield Plates are required for all but cast iron pipe within 1 ½” from the nearest edge of the framing member. Plates must be 1/16” thick and extend 2” above the sole plate and below the top plate. Pipes passing through footings or concrete walls must be protected by a pipe sleeve.

42 Plumbing Codes Water drain and sewer pipes must be protected from freezing. At least 12” deep and at least 6” below the frost line. (Depends on county) Testing of piping systems

43 Supply System Stop 1/2” 3/8” ¾” ½”

44 Bath Design Considerations
Try to hide the stops when planning pedestal lavs.

45 Bath Design Considerations
Consider the finish when designing wall-hung or console lavatories






51 Bath Design Considerations
Consider the finish when selecting toilet trim

52 Bath Design Considerations
The stop for a standard toilet may need to be lowered for a low profile toilet

53 Bath Design Considerations
Some 1-piece toilets require a ½” stop rather than the typical 3/8” stop.

54 Bath Design Considerations
Every fixture should have a stop Be sure that stops will not interfere with proper drawer function During a remodeling project always replace existing stops, because of the low cost of stops, price should never be an issue.

55 Supply Pipe Sizes House Main 1” House Service ¾” Riser ¾”
Kitchen Sink ½” Ice Maker ¼” Shower ½” Tub, Spa, Whirlpool ½”, ¾” Toilet 3/8”, ½” Lavatory 3/8”, ½” Bidet /8”

56 Wet Walls

57 Sharing a Wet Wall

58 Drain Waste and Vent DWV

59 DWV

60 DWV Major differences between DWV and supply systems
DWV pipes are large to carry solid waste DWV pipes slope downhill so gravity will remove the waste DWV pipes have “soft” not sharp angles and turns

61 DWV Parts Traps – Curved pipes that create a water seal to prevent sewer gasses from entering the home

62 DWV Parts Drain-Piping – Horizontal pipes that carry waste for the fixtures and appliances. Stacks – Vertical Pipes that drop the waste to lower levels of the home House and Sewer Drains – Horizontal pipes that remove the waste from the home to the sewer or a septic tank and drain field. Vent Stacks and Pipes – Pipes that will eventually extend through the roof of the home, preventing traps from being siphoned dry.


Sewer Line Building Drain

65 Materials used for DWV pipes
"[Oakum is] loose fibers obtained from old ropes which were then sold to the navy or other ship-builders - it was mixed with [pine] tar and used for caulking (sealing the lining) of wooden ships.


67 Materials used for DWV pipes

68 DWV Horizontal Drain Piping – drops ¼” per foot
If 1/8” slope solid waste will settle in the pipe and create a dam. If ½” slope or more liquid waste will flow over the solid waste without moving it along.

69 DWV Drain pipes vary in size
1 ¼” for small drains like bathroom lavatories 1 ½’ to 2” pipes are used on larger fixtures such as kitchen sinks, showers, bathtubs and washing machines. They will also drain multiple fixtures. 3” to 4” drains are the largest you will encounter in the home and are typically used for toilets and near the end of the DWV system.

70 DWV

71 P-Trap DWV If water falls below the dip gasses will get into the house. Summer homes example

72 S-Trap and Drum Traps DWV

73 Trap Facts All plumbing fixtures require traps All traps require vents
A critical distance must be maintained between the trap weir and the nearest vent


75 P-Traps DWV If water falls below the dip gasses will get into the house. Summer homes example

76 P-Traps DWV


78 Vents Max. Distance of fixture trap from vent 1 ¼” Trap 60”

79 Vents What happens when the vent is too far from the trap?
Three options Increase the size of the trap Re-Vent Bow Vent (Loop Vent) Automatic Vent Example: 1 ½” trap nearest vent is 84”. Increase the trap size to 2” 96”



82 Re-Venting If a fixture is re-vented, the secondary vent cannot be connected to the main stack until it is 6” above the flood level of the highest fixture.


84 Bow Vent

85 Automatic Vent


87 Siphon Jet

88 Toilet Flanges

89 Toilet Flanges 10” from wall 12” from wall (most common) 14” from wall
16” old homes

90 Pipe Bracing

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