Presentation on theme: "Joining, Installing, and Supporting Pipe"— Presentation transcript:
1 Joining, Installing, and Supporting Pipe Chapter 6Joining, Installing, and Supporting PipePlastic Pipe Joints • Copper Tube Joints • Cast Iron Soil Pipe Joints • Steel Pipe Joints • Installing and Supporting Pipe
2 Personal protective equipment, including proper eye and skin protection, must be worn when working with cleaners, primers, and solvent cements.Considerations for the safe handling of solvent cements, primers, and cleaners include the following:Avoid breathing of solvent cement vapors. Proper ventilation of an enclosed space is required to maintain a safe level of vapor concentration. Select proper ventilation equipment based on the area (square footage) being ventilated and access to outside air.Keep cleaners, primers, and solvent cements away from sources of ignition, sparks, heat, and open flame.Keep containers of cleaners, primers, and solvent cements tightly closed when the product is not being used.Properly dispose of all cloths used for cleaning excess solvent cement and primer.Proper eye protection must be worn when applying cleaner, primer, and solvent cement to pipe joints. See Figure 6-1. If the possibility of splashing cleaner, primer, or solvent cement exists, chemical goggles or face shields should be worn.…Complete bulleted list on page 168.
3 Primers are required for PVC and CPVC plastic pipe and typically contain a permanent dye or pigment that shows that the primer has been applied to the pipe and fittings.Primers are required for PVC and CPVC plastic pipe and fittings. Primers typically contain a permanent dye or pigment that shows that a primer has been applied to the pipe and fittings. See Figure 6-2. Depending on the type of material and its porosity and the length of time the primer has set, it may be possible to remove or lighten stains caused by primer pigments or dyes. However, the stains cannot be fully removed. Primers are not required for ABS plastic pipe and fittings. However, the fitting and adjoining portion of pipe must be wiped clean prior to applying solvent cement.
4 Solvent cement cure times will need to be adjusted, depending on outside temperature. Solvent cements are required for all types of plastic pipe. Solvent cements should be applied when the surface temperature is 40°F to 100°F. However, a strong solvent-welded joint can be made at temperatures below freezing as long as the cement is fluid and cure times are extended. See Figure 6-3. A dauber is used to apply solvent cement for pipe up to 3″ size. A brush or roller is used to apply solvent cement to larger plastic pipe. The width of the brush or roller should be approximately one-half the pipe size.
5 Solvent cement softens plastic pipe and fittings, ensuring a tight joint when the pipe is forced all the way into the fitting.Before applying primer or solvent cement to plastic pipe and fittings, check for the proper interference fit—the pipe should fit only about halfway into the fitting socket. After application of the appropriate primer and/or solvent cement, the pipe is forced all the way into the fitting, creating a tight joint. See Figure 6-4.
6 The proper preparation and installation techniques must be used to ensure watertight and airtight solvent-cemented joints.Proper preparation and installation techniques must be used to ensure watertight and airtight joints. See Figure 6-5. The proper procedure for preparing and installing ABS and PVC drainage, waste, and vent systems and CPVC pressure systems is as follows:Cut pipe squarely using a chop saw, universal saw, or plastic pipe cutter. A square cut ensures that the pipe seats properly in the fitting.Smooth the pipe ends using a pencil- or cone-type deburring tool for small-diameter pipe or a pocketknife or half-round file for large-diameter pipe.Dry fit the joint to check for the proper interference fit. The pipe should be able to be inserted only about halfway into the fitting socket. Ensure that the pipe and fitting surfaces are clean and dry.…Complete procedural list on pages 169–170.
7 An expander tool is used to expand the end of PEX tubing manufactured using the Engel process. PEX tubing manufactured using the Engel process has shape or thermal memory, meaning that the tubing returns to its original shape after being expanded. The tubing is expanded using an expander tool and the fitting is inserted into the tubing. The tubing returns to its original shape, securing the fitting in position. See Figure 6-6. The procedure for installing expanded PEX tubing and fittings is as follows:Cut PEX tubing squarely using a ratchet or scissors cutter. A square cut ensures that the tubing end butts properly against the fitting. Ensure that the tubing end and inside of the ring are dry and free of oil or grease so that the ring does not slide out of position during expansion.Slide the PEX ring over the tubing end and position the ring so that it extends over the tubing end no more than 1/16″. Some PEX rings are available in red and blue to assist in identification of hot and cold water lines.Separate the expander tool handles and insert the expansion head into the tubing end until it stops.…Complete procedural list on pages 171–172.
8 A crimping tool is used to compress the sleeve on PEX tubing manufactured using the silane or radiation process.PEX tubing manufactured using the silane or radiation process is joined using a compression sleeve. A compression sleeve is placed on the tubing, the ribbed end of the fitting is inserted into the tubing, and a press tool is used to compress the sleeve onto the tubing. See Figure 6-7. The procedure for installing PEX tubing compression sleeves and fittings is as follows:Cut PEX tubing squarely using a scissors cutter. A square cut ensures that the tubing will fit properly into the sleeve.Slide the proper size compression sleeve fully over the end of the tubing.Insert the barbed end of the fitting into the end of the tubing until it butts up against the sleeve. Check the view hole in the compression sleeve to see that the tubing is inserted fully into the sleeve.Place the press tool over the press sleeve perpendicular to the tubing and close the tool jaws. Ratchet the tool handles until the tool releases at the proper compression force.…Complete procedural list on page 173.
9 Push-type PEX fittings connect PEX tubing by using an internal interlocking mechanism. A push-type PEX fitting is a plumbing connection that uses an interlocking mechanism to connect to PEX tubing. See Figure 6-8. The tubing is inserted, or pushed, into the fitting and locked into place with a grab ring or fastening device that keeps the pipe from being backed-out or disconnected. An O-ring or gasket is used to form a tight seal around the PEX tubing. Some push-type PEX fittings may also be used to connect PEX tubing to other piping materials such as copper or CVPC.
10 The three techniques of heat fusion are socket, butt, and sidewall fusion. Cold weather and wind could adversely affect the heat fusion process. Factors such as shielding, high temperatures, and long heating times must be considered under these conditions. Three common types of fusion techniques are used to join PE pipe. These three techniques are socket, butt, and sidewall fusion. See Figure 6-9.
11 Electrofusion is the process of joining two PE pipes together using an internally heated coupling. Electrofusion is the process of joining two pipes together using an internally heated coupling. Heat is created by electric current, which is applied to the conductive material in the fitting. See Figure PE pipe-to-pipe connections made using the electrofusion process require the use of electrofusion couplings. Tapping tees and saddles may also be attached to PE pipe using electrofusion.
12 Mechanical couplings joining two ends of PE pipe provide leakproof joints that also resist pressure. Mechanical couplings are used to join two ends of PE pipe together. These couplings provide a leakproof joint that also resists pressure. They also provide resistance to end loads and pullout in certain applications. The three types of mechanical couplings used to connect PE pipe include compression-type, stab-type, and bolt-type mechanical couplings. See Figure 6-11.
13 Capillary attraction draws molten solder into the gap between the copper tube and fitting. Solder joint copper fittings are available in pressure or DWV patterns. Pressure fittings are used for aboveground water supply applications with types K, L, and M drawn copper tube. DWV fittings are used for drain, waste, and venting applications with types L, M, and DWV copper tube. Solder joints depend on capillary attraction to draw molten solder into the gap between the copper fitting and the copper tube. See Figure Flux, which is applied prior to soldering, acts as a wetting agent and allows uniform spreading of the molten solder over the adjoining surfaces.
14 The pasty range is the working temperature range for a particular type of solder. 95/5 solder is solder composed of 95% tin and 5% antimony and that has a higher soldering temperature, better strength, and higher electrical conductivity than common tin/lead solders. The pasty range of 95/5 solder is very small. Pasty range is the temperature range within which solder is neither completely solid nor completely liquid, and is the working temperature range for a particular type of solder. The pasty range of 95/5 solder is 12°F. See Figure 6-13.
15 Copper tube and fittings must be properly prepared and joined to ensure a leakproof joint. The procedure for soldering copper tube and fittings is as follows:Cut the tube end squarely to the required length using a tubing cutter or chop saw with an abrasive or carbide-tipped blade. See Figure 6-14.Ream the tube end with a deburring tool or reamer to remove the burrs remaining on the inside of the tube.Clean the tube end using abrasive cloth or a tube-cleaning brush to remove all impurities that would prevent solder adhesion.Clean the fitting socket using abrasive cloth or a fitting brush. When using abrasive cloth to clean the fitting socket, be sure to clean the bottom of the socket.…Complete procedural list on pages 180–182.
16 The proper brazing temperature is achieved when the fitting becomes dull red or the flux becomes clear.Brazing fluxes have a different composition than soldering fluxes. Brazing fluxes are water-based, prevent formation of oxides, and remove oxides or other undesirable substances from copper tube. In addition, brazing fluxes indicate copper tube temperature. Flux begins to bubble at 600°F to 800°F, melts at 800°F to 900°F, and becomes transparent and quiet at 1100°F. See Figure 6-15.
17 In the brazing process, heat is applied to the joint and a filler metal is used to fill the gap between the fitting and tube.The procedure for brazing a copper tube joint is as follows:Cut the tube end squarely to the required length using a tubing cutter or chop saw with a carbide tip blade. See Figure 6-16.Ream the tube end with a deburring tool or reamer to remove the burrs remaining on the inside of the tube.Clean the tube end using abrasive cloth or a tube cleaning brush.Clean the fitting socket using abrasive cloth or a fitting brush. When using abrasive cloth to clean the fitting socket, be sure to clean the bottom of the socket.Remove additional impurities on the copper tube by applying flux with a flux brush as soon as possible after cleaning. Use only enough flux to barely coat the surface. Excessive amounts of flux can cause corrosion and perforate the tube wall and/or fitting. When applying flux to the tube end and fitting, keep the flux container covered to prevent contamination. WARNING: Do not apply flux with fingers. Chemicals in the flux are harmful if carried to the eyes, mouth, or open cuts.Apply flux to the fitting socket.…Complete procedural list on pages 183–185.
18 Copper press fittings of 1/2″ to 2″ are installed without soldering by using a pressing tool to press the fittings together.The procedure for 1/2″ to 2″ copper tube is as follows:Cut the tube squarely to the proper length. See Figure 6-17.Deburr the tube on the inside and outside.Check the EPDM seal to see that it is clean, fits properly in the fitting, and is not damaged.Slide the press fitting onto the tube end with a slight turn until it stops.Mark the tube at the end of the fitting.Install the proper size clamping jaw onto the pressing tool and push it into the tool, holding the locking pin until the jaw locks in place.Open the clamping jaw and place over the fitting at a right angle to the tubing. Check the mark on the tubing to ensure the tubing is fully inserted into the fitting.Press and hold the tool trigger to start the pressing procedure. After the pressing procedure is complete, open the clamping jaw and remove the pressing tool.
19 Copper press fittings of 2 1/2″ to 4″ are installed without soldering by using a pressing tool and pressing ring to press the fittings together.The procedure for 2 1/2″ to 4″ copper tube is as follows:Cut the tube squarely to the proper length. See Figure 6-18.Deburr the tube on the inside and outside.Check the EPDM seal and the stainless steel grip ring to see that they are clean, fit properly, and are not damaged.Mark the insertion depth on the tube.Slide the press fitting onto the tube end with a slight turn until it stops at the insertion depth mark.Open the pressing ring and place over the fitting at a right angle to the tube. Check the mark on the tube to ensure the tube is fully inserted into the fitting.Open the ring pressing actuator on the pressing tool and engage it into pressing ring pockets.Press and hold the tool trigger to complete the pressing procedure. After the pressing procedure is complete, open the actuator and remove the pressing tool and pressing ring.
20 The depth, width, and location of a rolled groove must be accurate to ensure a watertight joint. Copper rolled groove joints are used for aboveground potable water supply piping. Manual or powered roller groovers form a groove with standard depth and width in the copper tube end for attachment of copper fittings. The depth, width, and location of the groove must be accurate to ensure a watertight joint. See Figure No metal is removed from the tube; rather, the groove is formed by pressing a steel die into the copper tube wall and deforming the tube.
21 Copper rolled groove joints are used for aboveground potable water supply applications. The basic components of a copper rolled groove joint are the rolled groove near the end of the copper tube and a coupling composed of a two-piece housing, gasket, and bolts and nuts to secure the coupling in position. Rolled groove joint couplings for copper tube are copper-colored and are not interchangeable with galvanized steel pipe couplings. The procedure to form a rolled groove on copper tube is as follows:Cut the copper tube squarely and to the proper length. See Figure 6-20.Ream the tube end to remove the burrs remaining on the inside of the tube. Clean the inside and outside surfaces of the copper tube to remove dirt or debris on the tube.Adjust the groove depth on the roll grooving tool. The groove diameter stop will need to be readjusted for each change in copper tube type (type L or M) and for each copper tube size. Plug the power drive into a properly grounded electrical power supply. The power drive must be operated with a safety foot switch.…Complete procedural list on pages 189–190.
22 A pi tape is used to measure the groove diameter of rolled groove pipe. …Complete procedural list on pages 189–190.Begin grooving the copper tube by slowly applying pressure to the upper die with the hydraulic pump or by turning the feed screw clockwise while the copper tube is rotating at a moderate rate. Grooves should be formed in 5 to 10 revolutions of the copper tube.Continue grooving until the groove depth stop comes to full, firm contact with the top of the machine body. Allow the tube to rotate for several more revolutions to ensure a complete groove. Release the safety foot switch and retract the upper roller die.Remove the copper tube from the tool and carefully check the groove diameter using a pi tape. A pi tape is a measuring device commonly included with a roll grooving tool and that it is wrapped around the circumference of the groove to accurately measure groove diameter. See Figure 6-21.
23 A branch tee is extruded from the wall of copper tube using a T-drill fitted with a collaring head. In the tee-pulling process, a branch collar, or tee, is extruded from the wall of copper tube using a drill fitted with a collaring head. A tube end notcher cuts a curved notch and produces two dimples simultaneously on the branch tube. The tee-pulling procedure is as follows:Locate the position of the tee on the main tube and drill a pilot hole using a collaring head. See Figure The collaring head forming pins should be in the closed position.Set the forming pins while the collaring head is inside the copper tube.With the support legs firmly braced against the copper tube, reverse the drill direction and slowly retract the collaring head from the tube while the head is rotating. A tee is formed as the collaring head is retracted from the tube.Cut the branch tube to the proper length and place one end in the tube end notcher. Push down the handle of the notcher to cut a curved notch and raise two dimples on the branch tube.…Complete procedural list on pages 190–191.
24 An impact flaring tool can be used to flare types K and L copper tube. Flared joint fittings are used with types K, L, and M annealed copper tube, and are typically used for underground water service applications. Impact or yoke-and-screw flaring tools are used to flare copper tube. The procedure for producing a flared joint using an impact flaring tool is as follows:Cut the copper tube squarely to the proper length. See Figure 6-23.Ream the tube end using a deburring tool or reamer to remove the burrs remaining on the inside of the tube.Slip the coupling nut over the end of the tube, ensuring that the nut threads face the end of the tube being flared.Insert the flaring tool into the tube end. Ensure that the axis of the flaring tool is aligned with the axis of the copper tube.Drive the flaring tool into the tube end using a hammer until the end of the tube is flush with the collar of the flaring tool. Typically, a few moderately light strokes are required to achieve the desired flare.…Complete procedural list on pages 191–192.
25 A yoke-and-screw flaring tool flares the end of copper tube to accept the end of the fitting. The procedure for producing a flared joint using a yoke-and-screw flaring tool is as follows:Cut the copper tube squarely to the proper length. See Figure 6-24.Ream the tube end to remove the burrs remaining on the inside of the tube using a deburring tool or reamer.Slip the coupling nut over the end of the tube ensuring that the nut threads face the end of the tube being flared.Insert the copper tube into the flaring block with the end flush with the top surface and clamp tightly.Place the yoke of the flaring tool on the block so that the beveled end of the flare cone is directly over the tube end.Turn the hand screw to force the copper tube against the block and form a flare. Remove the tube from the flaring tool when the flaring operation is complete.Assemble the flared joint by placing the fitting flush and squarely against the flare. Engage the coupling nut with the fitting threads and tighten the nut against the fitting with two adjustable wrenches, one on the nut and one on the fitting. Do not overtighten the coupling nut.
26 Compression joints consist of a compression fitting, compression ring, compression nut, and copper tube being joined.Compression joint fittings are used on copper tube to make connections that may need to be disassembled. Compression joint fittings are used with types K, L, and M annealed copper tube for aboveground applications. A compression joint for copper tube consists of a compression joint fitting, compression ring, compression nut, and copper tube being joined. See Figure The procedure for producing a compression joint for copper tube is as follows:Cut the copper tube squarely to the proper length.Ream the tube end using a deburring tool or reamer to remove the burrs remaining on the inside of the tube.Slide the compression nut over the end of the tube, ensuring that the nut threads face the end of the tube being joined.Slide the compression ring onto the tube.Slide the compression joint fitting over the tube end, butting the fitting against the compression ring.Tighten the compression nut onto the fitting with an adjustable wrench to compress the compression ring into the tube and seal the joint.
27 Lengths of no-hub cast iron soil pipe must be properly aligned and joined to create a leakproof joint.No-hub cast iron soil pipe and fittings are used for above and below ground plumbing. The procedure for producing a no-hub cast iron soil pipe joint is as follows:Cut the soil pipe squarely to the proper length using a soil pipe cutter or a chop saw fitted with an abrasive blade. See Figure When using a pipe cutter, position the chain cutter squarely around the pipe to ensure a straight cut. Score the pipe by applying pressure to the chain to indent the pipe. Rotate the pipe or cutters a few degrees and apply quick final pressure to complete the cut. If the pipe is especially tough, score the pipe several times before making the final cut. If necessary, remove the ragged edges from the pipe using a rasp, ball peen hammer, or grinder.Remove the neoprene sleeve from the stainless steel clamp assembly.Slide the stainless steel clamp assembly onto either the pipe or fitting.Insert the ends of the pipe or fitting into the neoprene gasket until they butt against the molded separator ring inside the gasket.…Complete procedural list on pages 195–196.
28 Compression gaskets provide a leakproof joint between the bell and spigot. Compression gaskets are made from neoprene rubber. The procedure for making a compression gasket soil pipe joint is:Cut the soil pipe squarely to the proper length using a pipe cutter or a chop saw fitted with an abrasive blade. See Figure If necessary, remove the ragged edges from the pipe using a rasp, ball peen hammer, or grinder.Clean the mating bell and spigot using a cloth so they are free from dirt, mud, gravel, or other foreign material.…Complete procedural list on pages 196–197.
29 NPT are tapered 3/4″ per foot of thread length so that the pipe and fittings will make up tightly to form a leakproof joint.American standard taper pipe threads are used on steel pipe and fittings. The American standard taper pipe thread, or NPT, is a standard pipe thread used for connecting water, gas, and steam pipes in which the adjoining sides of the threads are at a 60° angle to each other. The NPT is tapered 3/4″ per foot of thread length so that the pipe and fittings will thread together, or make up, tightly to form a leakproof joint. See Figure 6-28.
30 Male (external) pipe threads are cut at the ends of pipe to engage properly with the fitting threads.The procedure for cutting external threads and making up a threaded pipe joint is:Properly secure the pipe in a pipe vise or pipe machine and cut the pipe to the required length using a pipe cutter. See Figure 6-29.Ream the pipe to remove the burr on the inside of the pipe using a pipe reamer or half-round file, depending on the pipe size.Thread the pipe to the proper length using a pipe threader while adequately lubricating the die.Remove the pipe from the pipe machine or remove the pipe threader from the pipe and wipe the threads and pipe insides clean using a cloth.Apply thread sealant to the male threads.Start the fitting onto the pipe thread by hand, turning the fitting two and one-half to three rotations.Tighten the fitting with a pipe wrench approximately two rotations. Do not overtighten the fitting.
31 Dig holes under underground drainage and waste pipe couplings, bells, or joints so pipe firmly rests on its barrel.Due to the pipe size used for building drains and building sewers, a wide trench is dug using a backhoe or other excavating equipment to accommodate the pipe and workers installing the pipe. Temporary wood or metal shoring or shielding supports the soil or nearby equipment to protect workers and equipment in the trench. When the trench is safe to be entered, the proper procedure for installing underground drainage and waste pipe is as follows:Prepare the trench bottom for the pipe. The trench bottom should be stable and relatively smooth so that the pipe lays on a flat surface free from large clumps of dirt and rocks. In addition, the trench bottom must be properly graded so wastewater and waterborne waste drains by gravity. Soil conditions such as rocky soil may require excavation deeper than otherwise needed. Bedding material is then placed in the bottom of the trench and tamped to provide a stable and smooth bottom.Carefully lower the pipe into the trench using a sling and hoist, and place it in its approximate final position.Dig holes under each coupling, bell, or joint so the pipe firmly rests on its barrel. See Figure 6-30.…Complete procedural list on pages 199–201.
32 Proper backfilling procedures ensure that underground pipe remains in position. …Complete procedural list on pages 199–201.Before covering the pipe with backfill material, have the pipe tested and inspected by the proper authorities.Begin backfilling the trench by hand, tamping the backfill around the pipe to fill voids under and around the pipe so the pipe does not act as a beam holding up the weight of the backfill being used to fill the trench. See Figure 6-31.Continue backfilling and tamping the trench by hand in stages using backfill material. First, backfill and tamp to the centerline of the pipe. Next, cover the pipe with approximately 1′ of backfill material and tamp. Then, fill and tamp the remainder of the trench with excavated material using power equipment.
33 Pipe hangers and supports are anchored to structural members, such as beams, studs, or joists, to ensure proper stability, support, and alignment of pipe.For heavy commercial applications, inserts are embedded in concrete structural members. In wood-frame construction, nails and screws are typically used to secure pipe anchors and supports to structural components. Hollow wall anchors, such as toggles, expansion bolts, and plastic inserts, are used to attach pipe hangers and supports to hollow walls if framing members cannot be accessed. In steel-frame construction, angle iron or steel channels are welded or bolted to steel framing members, or clamps are used to fasten pipe hangers or supports to the framing members. See Figure 6-32.
34 Brackets are used to support horizontal and vertical pipes, and are attached to wood and metal framing members and adjacent pipes.Brackets are used to support horizontal and vertical pipes, and are attached to wood and metal framing members and adjacent pipes. Brackets for wood-frame construction are attached with nails; brackets for metal-frame construction are screwed to framing members. Many brackets have holes specifically placed on the face to provide proper spacing of water supply pipe stub-out for sinks, water closets, and other fixtures. Other brackets provide holes for fastening eared straps used to position stub-out elbows. See Figure Brackets are attached to other adjacent pipes using a stainless steel band. In some applications, a vibration-dampening pad is placed between the bracket and pipe.
35 Riser clamps, pipe straps, and extension split pipe clamps maintain alignment of vertical pipe. Vertical pipe must be properly supported at close intervals to maintain alignment of the pipe. Riser clamps, pipe straps, and extension split pipe clamps are commonly used to support vertical pipe. See Figure A riser clamp is a two-piece pipe clamp used to support vertical runs of steel pipe, cast iron pipe, and copper tube. Riser clamps wrap around the pipe and are installed above a floor, allowing the pipe weight to bear on the floor. A pipe strap is a one-piece pipe clamp secured to a stud with nails or screws. An extension split pipe clamp is a hinged pipe clamp secured to a structural component with a threaded hanger rod. The hanger rod is threaded into a wall plate attached to the structural component.
36 A variety of hangers, clamps, and hooks are available to support horizontal pipe. Horizontal pipe must be properly supported at close intervals to maintain alignment of the pipe and to prevent the pipe from sagging. See Figure The horizontal pipe support is selected based on the type of piping material, the material to which the support is attached, and the weight of the pipe contents. Lightweight, small-diameter steel, cast iron, and copper pipe and tube are supported horizontally in a wood-frame structure using pipe hooks, talons, and perforated strap iron.
37 Plastic pipe conveying hot water waste must be supported on continuous wood strips or angle iron for its entire length.For ABS, PVC, and CPVC pipe or tubing, support at 32″ intervals, except where pipe conveys hot water waste. Plastic pipe conveying hot water waste must be supported on continuous wood strips or angle iron for its entire length. See Figure 6-36.
38 Hangers must be placed adjacent to no-hub couplings. For no-hub cast iron soil pipe, support at every other joint, except where the developed length between hangers exceeds 4′, in which case hangers must be provided at each joint. Hangers must be placed adjacent to no-hub couplings. See Figure 6-37.
39 Sway bracing is used when cast iron soil pipe is suspended more than 18" from a ceiling using nonrigid hangers.No-hub couplings are not designed to support the weight of pipe. Where cast iron soil pipe is suspended more than 18″ from a ceiling using nonrigid hangers, sway bracing must be used to prevent horizontal movement of the pipe. See Figure 6-38.
40 Closet bends must be properly supported horizontally and vertically to prevent movement. Closet bends joined to a cast iron or plastic stack must be properly supported horizontally and vertically to prevent movement in either direction. See Figure 6-39.
41 Stacks must be properly supported at their bases. Stacks must be properly supported at their bases. For underground stack bases, a brick, solid concrete block, or concrete support must be placed under the fitting at the base of the stack. For aboveground stack bases, a pipe hanger, such as a trapeze or clevis hanger, is placed on the base fitting or as close to the fitting as possible. See Figure In addition, a riser clamp is installed above the floor to carry the stack weight.
42 PEX tubing must be properly supported to prevent kinking and abrasion of the tubing. Small-diameter flexible plastic tubing must be properly supported to prevent kinking of the tubing and abrasion of the tubing where it rests against a harder material. A bend support is a metal or reinforced plastic device that encloses a section of PEX tubing and provides rigid 90° bends. A drop ear bend support is a metal or reinforced plastic device that encloses a section of PEX tubing and provides a nailing plate for stub-out applications. See Figure 6-41.