Presentation on theme: "Revolution in China and Communist China"— Presentation transcript:
1Revolution in China and Communist China (How does this compare with the Russian Revolution and Stalin’s Soviet Union)
2Where are the sources? History is interpretation! Revolution in ChinaWhere are the sources?History is interpretation!
3BackgroundManchu / Qing Dynasty maintained limited power despite forced concessions to western nations and Japan at the beginning of the 20th century.Rural & urban workers, nationalists, communists, and intellectuals challenged the government.The dynasty fell in 1911 and a weak provisional government took its place.
4BackgroundAfter the Chinese emperor fell, regional warlords took control of many parts of China.Nationalist groups and communist groups moved to gain power.Sun Yat-sen became the leading figure in the Nationalist movement.There was an shaky alliance between Nationalists and Communists.
5BackgroundBetween 1925 – 1937 the NATIONALISTS led by Chiang Kai-shek aka Jiang Jieshi and the COMMUNISTS led by Mao Zedong fought for control of China
6Mao ZedongLed the army in developing guerilla warfare tactics to fight the Nationalists and then Japanese
7Civil War / Japanese Invasion 1937 – Japan invaded China properCommunists and Nationalists fought the Japanese “separately together”.Communists (northwest stronghold) were more effective in their guerilla war against the Japanese than the Nationalist army.Support from peasants- improved literacy, food production
8Nationalists Jiang Jieshi dominated southwestern China. Army of 2.5 millionAid from U.S. 1.5 billion to fight Japan- corrupt officials take much
9Civil War & Cold War After WWII ended, civil war continued. The US began sending military and tactical help to Jiang Jieshi and the USSR provided minimal help to Mao Zedongcorruption
10Communist Victory1949Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists were driven out of mainland China to Taiwan, the Communists claimed victory and founded the Communist People’s Republic of China led by Mao Zedong.Fueled more anti- communist feelings in U.S.
112 chinas affect Cold war US helps set up Jiang Jieshi’ gov’t in Taiwan Recognized it as the legit Chinese Govt
13China expands Tibet India, Mongolia Dalia Lama fled India, Mongolia
14Power Base of MaoThe ARMY was already established in the fight against the Japanese and the Nationalists.PEASANT support grew even stronger with early redistributions of land by the government.OTHERS supported the government because of propaganda and education.
15Mao consolidated power Many who were nationalists, upperclass, or dissidents were imprisoned in forced labor camps or killed.New mandate of heaven- disciplined
16Economic DevelopmentForeign economic influence was eliminated – most foreigners were kicked out of ChinaA Soviet style five year plan was implemented to encourage collectivization of agriculture and rapid industrialization.(These efforts had limited success.)
17Women’s Status Improved “Women hold up half the sky.” Foot-binding ended and arranged marriages were questionedWomen could hold professions, join the army, and serve in the government.“Legal equality” with men.
18Women’s Status Improved? Women were working outside of the home AND still responsible for the home and childcare.Traditional emphasis on men as “superior” continued.
19The Hundred Flowers Policy 1957Goverment loosened control of peoplePeople were allowed to question government policiesSignificant rise in anti-government rhetoric caused Mao to end the policy and arrest top critics
20Great Leap Forward 1958 - Mao attempted to reinvent Chinese economy Wished to industrialize outside the western model as quickly as possibleEliminated private enterpriseForced people out of the cities and into communes“Backyard steel mills” – small industrial centers scattered throughout ChinaMore collective farms called communes
22Great Leap Forward The plan failed miserably – famine caused 20 + million to die, steel production dropped drastically, the program ended early, and Mao’s power was reduced
23Cultural Revolution1960sMao wished to regain power he lost in the Great Leap Forward and create another revolutionary movement.Created The Red Guard from the Chinese youth – students, peasants, & soldiers
26Cultural RevolutionRed Guard attacked people in positions of power or privilege who publicly disagreed with Mao.Any “suspects” were imprisoned or forced into labor in rural areas.
27Cultural Revolution Traditional culture and education were destroyed. Cult of personality formed around MaoEventually military leaders supported ending cultural revolution in fear that it would get out of control.
28China after MaoNew communist leadership allowed some private business and farm ownership and created a stock exchange. Manufacturing increased drastically as trade boomed.
29China after MaoOverall, redistribution of wealth, education, healthcare, and living standards improved to higher levels.
30China after MaoGovernment control and lack of individual freedom along with a variety of economic and social problems still make China one of the least “free” places on the planet.Working conditions remain terrible.