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Slide 1 Revolution in China and Communist China (How does this compare with the Russian Revolution and Stalins Soviet Union)

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 Revolution in China and Communist China (How does this compare with the Russian Revolution and Stalins Soviet Union)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 Revolution in China and Communist China (How does this compare with the Russian Revolution and Stalins Soviet Union)

2 Slide 2 Revolution in China Where are the sources? History is interpretation!

3 Slide 3 Background Manchu / Qing Dynasty maintained limited power despite forced concessions to western nations and Japan at the beginning of the 20 th century. Rural & urban workers, nationalists, communists, and intellectuals challenged the government. The dynasty fell in 1911 and a weak provisional government took its place.

4 Slide 4 Background After the Chinese emperor fell, regional warlords took control of many parts of China. Nationalist groups and communist groups moved to gain power. Sun Yat-sen became the leading figure in the Nationalist movement. There was an shaky alliance between Nationalists and Communists.

5 Slide 5 Background Between 1925 – 1937 the NATIONALISTS led by Chiang Kai-shek aka Jiang Jieshi and the COMMUNISTS led by Mao Zedong fought for control of China

6 Slide 6 Mao Zedong Led the army in developing guerilla warfare tactics to fight the Nationalists and then Japanese

7 Slide 7 Civil War / Japanese Invasion 1937 – Japan invaded China proper Communists and Nationalists fought the Japanese separately together. Communists (northwest stronghold) were more effective in their guerilla war against the Japanese than the Nationalist army. Support from peasants- improved literacy, food production

8 Slide 8 Nationalists Jiang Jieshi dominated southwestern China. Army of 2.5 million Aid from U.S. 1.5 billion to fight Japan- corrupt officials take much

9 Slide 9 Civil War & Cold War After WWII ended, civil war continued. The US began sending military and tactical help to Jiang Jieshi and the USSR provided minimal help to Mao Zedong corruption

10 Slide 10 Communist Victory 1949 Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists were driven out of mainland China to Taiwan, the Communists claimed victory and founded the Communist Peoples Republic of China led by Mao Zedong. Fueled more anti- communist feelings in U.S.

11 Slide 11 2 chinas affect Cold war US helps set up Jiang Jieshi govt in Taiwan Recognized it as the legit Chinese Govt

12 Slide 12 China

13 Slide 13 China expands Tibet –Dalia Lama fled – Zom0 Zom0 India, Mongolia

14 Slide 14 Power Base of Mao The ARMY was already established in the fight against the Japanese and the Nationalists. PEASANT support grew even stronger with early redistributions of land by the government. OTHERS supported the government because of propaganda and education.

15 Slide 15 Mao consolidated power Many who were nationalists, upperclass, or dissidents were imprisoned in forced labor camps or killed. New mandate of heaven- disciplined

16 Slide 16 Economic Development Foreign economic influence was eliminated – most foreigners were kicked out of China A Soviet style five year plan was implemented to encourage collectivization of agriculture and rapid industrialization. (These efforts had limited success.)

17 Slide 17 Womens Status Improved Women hold up half the sky. Foot-binding ended and arranged marriages were questioned Women could hold professions, join the army, and serve in the government. Legal equality with men.

18 Slide 18 Womens Status Improved? Women were working outside of the home AND still responsible for the home and childcare. Traditional emphasis on men as superior continued.

19 Slide 19 The Hundred Flowers Policy 1957 Goverment loosened control of people People were allowed to question government policies Significant rise in anti- government rhetoric caused Mao to end the policy and arrest top critics

20 Slide 20 Great Leap Forward 1958 - Mao attempted to reinvent Chinese economy Wished to industrialize outside the western model as quickly as possible –Eliminated private enterprise –Forced people out of the cities and into communes –Backyard steel mills – small industrial centers scattered throughout China –More collective farms called communes

21 Slide 21 Great Leap Forward = Great Leap Backward

22 Slide 22 Great Leap Forward The plan failed miserably – famine caused 20 + million to die, steel production dropped drastically, the program ended early, and Maos power was reduced

23 Slide 23 Cultural Revolution 1960s Mao wished to regain power he lost in the Great Leap Forward and create another revolutionary movement. Created The Red Guard from the Chinese youth – students, peasants, & soldiers

24 Slide 24

25 Slide 25

26 Slide 26 Cultural Revolution Red Guard attacked people in positions of power or privilege who publicly disagreed with Mao. Any suspects were imprisoned or forced into labor in rural areas.

27 Slide 27 Cultural Revolution Traditional culture and education were destroyed. Cult of personality formed around Mao Eventually military leaders supported ending cultural revolution in fear that it would get out of control.

28 Slide 28 China after Mao New communist leadership allowed some private business and farm ownership and created a stock exchange. Manufacturing increased drastically as trade boomed.

29 Slide 29 China after Mao Overall, redistribution of wealth, education, healthcare, and living standards improved to higher levels.

30 Slide 30 China after Mao Government control and lack of individual freedom along with a variety of economic and social problems still make China one of the least free places on the planet. Working conditions remain terrible.

31 Slide 31

32 Slide 32 China after Mao Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 -- student and labor protesters were killed by government forces

33 Slide 33

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