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Monday May 19, 2014. 17.2 Communists Take Power in China.

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Presentation on theme: "Monday May 19, 2014. 17.2 Communists Take Power in China."— Presentation transcript:

1 Monday May 19, 2014

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3 17.2 Communists Take Power in China

4  China was in a Civil War between the Nationalists & Communists  Japan invaded in 1937 and both groups united to fight against the Japanese during WWII

5  Mao Zedong—leader of the Chinese Communist Party (founded in 1921)  Had a stronghold in Northwestern China  Mobilized peasants for guerilla warfare against the Japanese  Made efforts to improve food production & literacy & won support in NW China by 1945

6  Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai- Shek) —leader of the Nationalist Party  Dominated Southwest China  Did not do much fighting in WWII  Instead, they saved up strength to fight Mao’s Red Army after WWII ended

7  Renewed Civil War lasted from  Nationalist Army outnumbered the Communists & were supported by the U.S.  Nationalists could not win popular support  China’s economy collapsed as a result of WWII & thousands of soldiers & civilians switched to the Communist Party

8  By 1949, China’s major cities fell to Mao’s Red Army  Jiang’s army & government fled to Taiwan  Mao’s Promises  Give land back to the peasants  China became the People’s Republic of China  Signed Treaty of Friendship with Russia (1950)

9  Taiwan or Nationalist China  Supported by U.S.  Militarily weak & corrupt  Weak public support  Communist or People’s Republic of China  Supported by Soviets  Soviet-Chinese Alliance to support each other in an attack by the West  Experienced & motivated guerilla army  Strong public support

10  Chinese Red Army expanded into Tibet, India, & Mongolia  , brutally took over Tibet & the Dalai Lama fled to India  India harbored Tibetan refugees which increased tension between China and India Mongolia India

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12  Set up two political organizations, both headed by Mao until 1959  The Communist Party  National Government  Agrarian Reform Law of 1950  Mao seized land of owners & returned it to the peasants  Killed over a million people in the process  Established a 5-Year Economic Plan  Plan to boost industry & business  Increased output of coal, steel, concrete, & electricity

13  The Great Leap Forward (1958)  Called for large collective farms, or communes  Peasants worked & lived there, owning nothing  Considered a failure after crop famines killed 20 million people  China and USSR begin to compete to lead the worldwide Communist Movement by the late 1950s

14  Led by the Red Guards, militias of Communist supporters  Goal: to establish a society of peasants & workers in which all were equal  Anything artistic & intellectual considered useless  Shut down colleges and schools  Intellectuals had to “purify” themselves by doing hard labor  Thousands executed & imprisoned  Chaos threatened the farm production & industry  Communist National Army was told to suppress the Red Guards & end the revolution


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