What is an American? Money, freedom of speech, equal rights, the individual, dissatisfied, democratic, different – multi-cultural, educated – value education,
Presentation on theme: "What is an American? Money, freedom of speech, equal rights, the individual, dissatisfied, democratic, “different” – multi-cultural, educated – value education,"— Presentation transcript:
1What is an American?Money, freedom of speech, equal rights, the individual, dissatisfied, democratic, “different” – multi-cultural, educated – value education, freedom of religion, excess, overweight, business, family, shaped by the media, helpful to others
2What is the American Dream? Stable and secure life, successful, “Better life than parents and for their children to have a better life” , immigrants are drawn to have their success, luxuries, united, prosperous society, respect no matter who you are, peace, happiness (defined individually), safe no matter what, upward social mobility,
3Why did the Europeans Arrive? Motivation, Ability, etc. Gold – (Silver) is for the monarchyGod – for some, this means religious freedom (Protestants) – convert the indigenous to Christianity/Roman CatholicismGlory – for the explorers (ships’ captains) – Conquistadors – heroesSpices – for trade purposes – improve the flavor of food -
4Why did the Europeans Arrive? Motivation, Ability, etc. Ships (sailing) – newer technology – maps, sextant, compass, astrolabe, Isabella & Ferdinand – Spain was newly united – other newly united/centralized power – nations France, Holland/The Netherlands, and England.
5Why did the Europeans Arrive? Motivation, Ability, etc.
6Why did the Europeans Arrive? Motivation, Ability, etc. Isabella and Ferdinand give permission they funded the mission – new nation – unified and wealthyNew Technology – New Ships, Compass, Astrolabe
7Why did the Europeans Arrive? Motivation, Ability, etc. Religion, NO land left, curious, looking for Resources – spices, Gold, Technology – ships, sails, compass, astrolabe, New wealth – Spain, France, and England and newly Strong and Centralized Monarchies.
8Why did the Europeans Arrive? Motivation, Ability, etc. Europeans (Euroasians)arrivein thenew WorldGold, God, Glory – The Three G’s & SpicesIsabelle & Ferdinand – Unified Spain – Centralized Gov’tAdv Technology in ship and sail design & maps, astrolabe, compass,
15Spain What do they want? Three G’s – Land – expansion/Empire Isabella & FerdinandWhat do they want?Three G’s –Gold - $ for the Crown/MonarchyGod – new souls lost to the split in the Roman Catholic ChurchGlory – for the conquistadors/soldiersSpices – most trade in the world involved spice – the reason for Columbus’ ventureLand – expansion/EmpireThe Reconquista as a coincidence
18Defeat of the Aztecs – Gold ”The enemy of my enemy is…..?” Charles I of Spain/Charles V ofThe Holy Roman EmpirePhilip IICortesDefeat of the Aztecs – Gold”The enemy of my enemy is…..?”Pizarro – Defeat of the Incas - SilverCoronado’s search for El Dorado
19Spanish and Portuguese Families – the Mestizo/”blended” Families Creole – blend of three – indigenous/European/african – Sp, Port, and French
20Spain cont’d Success/Failure? Indigenous population from 25 Million in 1519 to 2.5 M by 1519 – enslaved the indigenous and brought the first African slaves – conversion to RC of bothJealousy by other nations, lead to new entries into the colonial eraToo dependent on Gold. What happens when it runs out? What about Inflation?Few women – intermarriage – less allegiance to Spain
22France What do they want? The two F’s…. Fur – Why? Forests – Why? Northwest Passage – What is that?* Conversion of the indigenous is not a priority but a product of expansion
23Cartier – claims the St.Lawrence Seaway for France
24Champlain – Continued with the exploration of the St Champlain – Continued with the exploration of the St. Lawrence Seaway & continued the search for the Northwest Passage through the Great Lakes
25Marquette & - Joliet(t) – explore the Great Lakes & Upper Mississippi for the French
26France cont’d Success or Failure? Established good trade with the IndiansConverted the IndiansFew women – fur trappers, lumberjacks, and priests – intermarriage with the indigenousConflict with England lead to the French & Indian War – loss of all American colonies, except islands off of N. American/Caribbean
32Sir Walter Raleigh – Joint-Stock Company John Cabot – First to “claim” the East coast of upper North America for EnglandSir Walter Raleigh – Joint-Stock CompanyVirginia – Roanoke Island 1585(Outer Banks)Return visit 1590 – village abandoned – all settlers and the settlement itself – vanished - except for “Croatoan“ carved into a treeJamestown – 1603 – Joint Stock with more oversight and resupply visits - PROFIT
34England wanted to establish an American colony Wealth!POWER!Jamestown was primarily an economic venture.The Virginia Company of London financed the settlement of Jamestown. (Stockholders)Jamestown became the 1st permanent English settlement in North America in 1607.PROFITS!!!
35Jamestown became the first permanent English settlement in North America in 1607.
37Africans arrived in Jamestown against their will. It is believed that they arrived as baptized Christians and so were labeled indentured servants (rather than slaves) for a period of 5 to 7 years.The arrival of Africans made it possible to expand the tobacco economy. $$$The arrival of women in 1620 allowed settlers to establish families and a more permanent settlement at Jamestown.
38Hardships Faced By Settlers The site they chose to live on was marshy and lacked safe drinking water.The settlers lacked the skills necessary to provide for themselves.Many settlers died of starvation and disease. “The Starving Time.”
39Captain John SmithAs leader of the Jamestown Colony he helped to restore order with one simple rule“He that will not work, will not eat.”He also initiated trading relationships with the Powhatan Indian tribes lead by Chief Powhatan.However, due to an injury he left the colony to return to England in 1609.
40England cont’d Types of English Colonies Joint-Stock Colony based on sale of shares/stocks to investors. The crown/monarch gives blessing/permission to establish a colony and gains shares = profit, IF profitable – 1/5 of Gold and SilverProprietorColony owned by one single owner (proprietor). Purchased from the crown – most successful – Penn(sylvania)RoyalOwned/controlled directly by the crown/monarch – eventually ALL will be. Direct control from a Royal Governor, appointed by the monarch
41England cont’d Success or Failure? English settle with relative ease – little resistance. However, 10-25% of original settlersEnglish come often with “instant” families - married already, sometimes with children. Or, marry within the settlements in the New World. Men outnumber women, but women come in greater numbers than with the Spanish and/or FrenchEnglish defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 lead to a greater/stronger English NavyLoss of Spanish gold to English “pirates” aids the English crownTrade with Spain for gold makes wealthier the English merchantsWith Treaty of Paris, 1763, they control much of upper North American (present day Canada and from the East coast to the Mississippi River of the present day U.S.)
43From Where Did the Puritans Come? Fall of theRoman EmpireReligious Experience in EuropeMedieval – Roman Catholic ChurchStrong Centralized Papacy (Pope) – “infallable”Controlled all education – monasteriesPower struggle with new national monarchiesWorldly – seen as too concerned with material and political wealth
44Origins of the Puritans, cont’d Renaissance –Challenges to the Roman Catholic Church –Papal authority challengedGreat Schism/Babylonian Captivity – a kidnapping/murder of a Pope – moved the papacy to France, then back to Rome, then TWO Popes…Sale of Indulgences – Johann Tetzel/Martin LutherThe “Protestant Reformation”
45MARTIN LUTHERThe FIRST of the Protest(ants)Vernacular – NOT Latin but in the language of the people – 1st - GermanJOHN CALVINFoundation of the Puritans
46Luther vs. Calvin Luther – 95 Theses Calvin Salvation by “faith alone” One only has to “believe” to be savedPriesthood of all believersAnyone can be a priest/no “priest” neededCalvinPredestination is God’s SalvationThe “Elect”A “Covenant” with God – a pact for God’s grace
47The English Reformation ELIZABETH I – TUDOR1559 -Established the Anglican Church/Church of England as it is todayHENRY VIII – TUDOR – wanted to“change wives”JAMES I – STUART“King James” BibleCHARLES I – STUART1649-Beheaded by the Puritans
48England was Catholic until… King Henry VIII wanted a divorce.He created the Church of England, made himself leader and gave himself the divorce.
49Henry was replaced by Bloody Mary She restores Catholicism. Now it is a crime not to be Catholic.This causes confusion!Puritans and their values begin here!!!
50Mary is replaced by her half sister Elizabeth I She is Protestant.She restores the Church of England but doesn’t want to reform it or deal harshly with Catholics – blends the TWO together – Protestant with Catholic “trappings”
51The next king, James I is no better. He makes no reforms, but gets tired of the constant complaining of the Puritans.He allows them to leave England if they want and some do.
52Charles I Represses the Puritans. He gets tired of the complaining and persecutes them.This is when many of them leave and come to colonize North America.
54Pilgrims vs. Puritans Pilgrims – “a pilgrimage” to the New World Seen as Separatists –must Separate from theC of E (Church of England)Puritans – “Purify” theC of E – “from afar”
55Plimouth (Plymouth) Plantation (1620)/ Boston (1630) The Community is only as strong as its weakest member.“Puritan Work Ethic” – “Idle hands are the devil’s playground”
56Roger Williams ANNE HUTCHINSON Puritan DissentersRogerWilliamsANNEHUTCHINSON
57Roger WilliamsThought that colonists should pay Indians for the lands that they took from them.Thought people should be free to worship as they pleased.Thought that the Puritan church should not regulate your relationship with God.
58As a result…He was charged with heresy and was to be sent back to England. Why?He fled to Providence (name?) R.I. And created a society that guaranteed separation of church and state and religious freedom.
59Anne HutchinsonShe believed that people could interpret the bible themselves without the help of ministers. Women could preach the word of God!Was viewed as a real threat to Puritan values.Was punished for her beliefs and then fled to Rhode Island – then to Long Island -