What is an American? Money, freedom of speech, equal rights, the individual, dissatisfied, democratic, different – multi-cultural, educated – value education,
Presentation on theme: "What is an American? Money, freedom of speech, equal rights, the individual, dissatisfied, democratic, different – multi-cultural, educated – value education,"— Presentation transcript:
What is an American? Money, freedom of speech, equal rights, the individual, dissatisfied, democratic, different – multi-cultural, educated – value education, freedom of religion, excess, overweight, business, family, shaped by the media, helpful to others
What is the American Dream? Stable and secure life, successful, Better life than parents and for their children to have a better life, immigrants are drawn to have their success, luxuries, united, prosperous society, respect no matter who you are, peace, happiness (defined individually), safe no matter what, upward social mobility,
Why did the Europeans Arrive? Motivation, Ability, etc. Gold – (Silver) is for the monarchy God – for some, this means religious freedom (Protestants) – convert the indigenous to Christianity/Roman Catholicism Glory – for the explorers (ships captains) – Conquistadors – heroes Spices – for trade purposes – improve the flavor of food -
Why did the Europeans Arrive? Motivation, Ability, etc. Ships (sailing) – newer technology – maps, sextant, compass, astrolabe, Isabella & Ferdinand – Spain was newly united – other newly united/centralized power – nations France, Holland/The Netherlands, and England.
Why did the Europeans Arrive? Motivation, Ability, etc.
Isabella and Ferdinand give permission they funded the mission – new nation – unified and wealthy New Technology – New Ships, Compass, Astrolabe
Why did the Europeans Arrive? Motivation, Ability, etc. Religion, NO land left, curious, looking for Resources – spices, Gold, Technology – ships, sails, compass, astrolabe, New wealth – Spain, France, and England and newly Strong and Centralized Monarchies.
Why did the Europeans Arrive? Motivation, Ability, etc. Gold, God, Glory – The Three Gs & Spices Isabelle & Ferdinand – Unified Spain – Centralized Govt Adv Technology in ship and sail design & maps, astrolabe, compass,
European Colonial Powers of the 15 th -18 th Centuies X X Holland X England X X
Why did Expansion/Exploration Occur When it Did? Unification of Nation-States (England, France, Spain) Centralized Governments had more $ Technological advancements
What the world Looked like… Top: 16 th (C)entury Bottom: 18 th C.
Spain What do they want? –Three Gs – Gold - $ for the Crown/Monarchy God – new souls lost to the split in the Roman Catholic Church Glory – for the conquistadors/soldiers Spices – most trade in the world involved spice – the reason for Columbus venture –Land – expansion/Empire –The Reconquista as a coincidence Isabella & Ferdinand
The Spanish Empire
Spain in the New World
Philip II Charles I of Spain/Charles V of The Holy Roman Empire Cortes Defeat of the Aztecs – Gold The enemy of my enemy is…..? Pizarro – Defeat of the Incas - Silver Coronados search for El Dorado
Spanish and Portuguese Families – the Mestizo/blended Families Creole – blend of three – indigenous/ European/african – Sp, Port, and French
Spain contd Success/Failure? –Indigenous population from 25 Million in 1519 to 2.5 M by 1519 – enslaved the indigenous and brought the first African slaves – conversion to RC of both –Jealousy by other nations, lead to new entries into the colonial era –Too dependent on Gold. What happens when it runs out? What about Inflation? –Few women – intermarriage – less allegiance to Spain
The FrencH In america
France What do they want? –The two Fs…. –Fur – Why? –Forests – Why? –Northwest Passage – What is that? –* Conversion of the indigenous is not a priority but a product of expansion
Cartier – claims the St. Lawrence Seaway for France
Champlain – Continued with the exploration of the St. Lawrence Seaway & continued the search for the Northwest Passage through the Great Lakes
Marquette & - Joliet(t) – explore the Great Lakes & Upper Mississippi for the French
France contd Success or Failure? –Established good trade with the Indians –Converted the Indians –Few women – fur trappers, lumberjacks, and priests – intermarriage with the indigenous –Conflict with England lead to the French & Indian War – loss of all American colonies, except islands off of N. American/Caribbean
England What do they want? –Land – expansion –Keeping up with the Joneses –* unlike the Spanish and French (and consequently, the Portuguese) the English have little government oversight/influence
The British Empire
John Cabot – First to claim the East coast of upper North America for England Sir Walter Raleigh – Joint-Stock Company –Virginia – Roanoke Island 1585 (Outer Banks) –Return visit 1590 – village abandoned – all settlers and the settlement itself – vanished - except for Croatoan carved into a tree Jamestown – 1603 – Joint Stock with more oversight and resupply visits - PROFIT
England wanted to establish an American colony nJamestown was primarily an economic venture. nThe Virginia Company of London financed the settlement of Jamestown. (Stockholders) nJamestown became the 1 st permanent English settlement in North America in 1607.
Jamestown became the first permanentJamestown English settlement in North America in 1607.
Africans arrived in Jamestown against their will. It is believed that they arrived as baptized Christians and so were labeled indentured servants (rather than slaves) for a period of 5 to 7 years. The arrival of Africans made it possible to expand the tobacco economy. $$$ The arrival of women in 1620 allowed settlers to establish families and a more permanent settlement at Jamestown.
The site they chose to live on was marshy and lacked safe drinking water. The settlers lacked the skills necessary to provide for themselves. Many settlers died of starvation and disease. The Starving Time.
Captain John Smith As leader of the Jamestown Colony he helped to restore order with one simple rule He that will not work, will not eat. He also initiated trading relationships with the Powhatan Indian tribes lead by Chief Powhatan. However, due to an injury he left the colony to return to England in 1609.
England contd Types of English Colonies –Joint-Stock Colony based on sale of shares/stocks to investors. The crown/monarch gives blessing/permission to establish a colony and gains shares = profit, IF profitable – 1/5 of Gold and Silver –Proprietor Colony owned by one single owner (proprietor). Purchased from the crown – most successful – Penn(sylvania) –Royal Owned/controlled directly by the crown/monarch – eventually ALL will be. Direct control from a Royal Governor, appointed by the monarch
England contd Success or Failure? –English settle with relative ease – little resistance. However, % of original settlers –English come often with instant families - married already, sometimes with children. Or, marry within the settlements in the New World. Men outnumber women, but women come in greater numbers than with the Spanish and/or French –English defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 lead to a greater/stronger English Navy –Loss of Spanish gold to English pirates aids the English crown –Trade with Spain for gold makes wealthier the English merchants –With Treaty of Paris, 1763, they control much of upper North American (present day Canada and from the East coast to the Mississippi River of the present day U.S.)
Religious Experience in Europe –Medieval – Roman Catholic Church Strong Centralized Papacy (Pope) – infallable Controlled all education – monasteries Power struggle with new national monarchies Worldly – seen as too concerned with material and political wealth From Where Did the Puritans Come?
Origins of the Puritans, contd –Renaissance – Challenges to the Roman Catholic Church –Papal authority challenged Great Schism/Babylonian Captivity – a kidnapping/murder of a Pope – moved the papacy to France, then back to Rome, then TWO Popes… Sale of Indulgences – Johann Tetzel/Martin Luther The Protestant Reformation
MARTIN LUTHER The FIRST of the Protest(ants) Vernacular – NOT Latin but in the language of the people – 1 st - German JOHN CALVIN Foundation of the Puritans
Luther vs. Calvin Luther – 95 Theses –Salvation by faith alone One only has to believe to be saved –Priesthood of all believers Anyone can be a priest/no priest needed Calvin –Predestination is Gods Salvation The Elect –A Covenant with God – a pact for Gods grace
The English Reformation HENRY VIII – TUDOR – wanted to change wives ELIZABETH I – TUDOR Established the Anglican Church/ Church of England as it is today JAMES I – STUART King James Bible CHARLES I – STUART 1649-Beheaded by the Puritans
England was Catholic until… King Henry VIII wanted a divorce. He created the Church of England, made himself leader and gave himself the divorce.
Henry was replaced by Bloody Mary She restores Catholicism. Now it is a crime not to be Catholic. This causes confusion! Puritans and their values begin here!!!
Mary is replaced by her half sister Elizabeth I She is Protestant. She restores the Church of England but doesnt want to reform it or deal harshly with Catholics – blends the TWO together – Protestant with Catholic trappings
The next king, James I is no better. He makes no reforms, but gets tired of the constant complaining of the Puritans. He allows them to leave England if they want and some do.
Charles I Represses the Puritans. He gets tired of the complaining and persecutes them. This is when many of them leave and come to colonize North America.
Pilgrims vs. Puritans Pilgrims – a pilgrimage to the New World Seen as Separatists –must Separate from the C of E (Church of England) Puritans – Purify the C of E – from afar
Plimouth (Plymouth) Plantation (1620)/ Boston (1630) The Community is only as strong as its weakest member. Puritan Work Ethic – Idle hands are the devils playground
Roger Williams Thought that colonists should pay Indians for the lands that they took from them. Thought people should be free to worship as they pleased. Thought that the Puritan church should not regulate your relationship with God.
As a result… He was charged with heresy and was to be sent back to England. Why? He fled to Providence (name?) R.I. And created a society that guaranteed separation of church and state and religious freedom.
Anne Hutchinson She believed that people could interpret the bible themselves without the help of ministers. Women could preach the word of God! Was viewed as a real threat to Puritan values. Was punished for her beliefs and then fled to Rhode Island – then to Long Island -