2 Word Bank: Christopher Columbus, Hernán Cortés, Francisco Pizarro, gold, disease, slave traders How did Spain establish territorial claims inthe Caribbean and South America?Spain sent explorers such as ChristopherColumbus, Hernán Cortés, and FranciscoPizarro to discover and claim lands forSpain.What was life like in Spanish settlementsin the Caribbean and South America?Although many Spanish settlers wereinterested mainly in finding gold, somestarted sugar plantations. At first, thesesettlers forced native peoples to work forthem. When the Indians began to die fromEuropean diseases, slave tradersprovided enslaved Africans as laborers.What type of relationship existed between the Spanish and Native Americans living in theCaribbean and South America?The Spanish treated Native Americans living in the Caribbean and South America harshly.Cortés attacked the Aztecs in Mexico. Pizarro conquered the Incas in Peru and killedtheir leader Atahualpa, even though the Incas had given Pizarro the gold he demanded.Explorers also brought diseases such as smallpox that killed many native inhabitants.
3 Word Bank: Francisco Coronado, Ponce de León, pueblos, presidios, missions, priests How did Spain establish territorial claims inNorth America?Several explorers established Spanishterritorial claims in North America.Ponce de León explored Florida. Francisco Coronado traveled as far north as the Great Plains in his search for seven cities of gold. All he found were seven littlevillages, or pueblos.What types of permanent settlements did theSpanish establish in North America?Spanish soldiers established forts calledpresidios to protect Spanish lands. Catholicpriests, anxious to convert Native Americans,established missions.What type of relationship existed between the Spanish and Native Americans living inNorth America?The Native Americans and the Spanish learned many things from each other. Pueblo people learned how to use new tools, grow new foods, and raise sheep for wool. Many converted to Catholicism. From the Indians, the Spanish learned new techniques for growing crops in the desert. However, the Spanish treated the Native Americans harshly. Indians were made to work as slave labor. Their religious leaders who refused to convert to Christianity were whipped. The Spanish brought diseases, which killed many Indians. In response to thistreatment, Native Americans sometimes attacked the Spanish.
4 Word Bank: Jacques Cartier, Robert de La Salle, coureurs de bois, missionaries, Huron How did France establish territorial claims inNorth America?Explorers established French claims in North America. Jacques Cartier claimed Canada. Samuel de Champlain established a trading post at Quebec. Father Marquette and LouisJoliet explored the Mississippi River. Robert de La Salle claimed Louisiana.What was life like in French settlements inNorth America?Fur trappers, or coureurs de bois, andmissionaries came to New France. However, the colony failed to attract many settlers because of the harsh climate and thecolony’s policy of granting the best landto nobility.What type of relationship existed between the French and Native Americans living in North America?The French made the Native Americans their business partners. An especially friendlyrelationship was established between the French and the Huron, who were enemies of theIroquois. European diseases, however, killed many Indians.
5 Word Bank: John Cabot, Captain John Smith, Pocahontas, mosquitoes, Starving Time, John Rolfe How did England establish territorial claims in North America?John Cabot’s brief landing onNewfoundland established English claimsin North America. The English alsoestablished settlements in Virginia.What was life like in Jamestown?Life was difficult for the settlers inJamestown. Their settlement was located ina swamp where disease-carrying mosquitoesbred. Most settlers were unwilling or unable toprovide for themselves. After Captain JohnSmith took over leadership, conditionsimproved. When Smith was forced to returnto England, however, the settlers wentthrough the Starving Time. NativeAmericans would not trade with the settlers.What type of relationship existed between the English and the Native Americans living around Jamestown? Captain John Smith became friends with the Native Americans. The daughter of the chief, Pocahontas, helped the colonists avoid starvation. Although the Native Americans refused to trade with the settlers during the Starving Time, relations improved when John Rolfe married Pocahontas.
6 Word Bank: Henry Hudson, Peter Minuit, Peter Stuyvesant, fur trade, Iroquois, English, New York How did the Netherlands establish territorialclaims in North America?The explorations of Henry Hudsonestablished the territorial claims of the Dutch in North America. Also, Peter Minuit bought the island of Manhattan from the Native Americans.What was life like in New Netherland?Early Dutch settlers were interested infur trade. By 1660, nearly 8,000 peoplehad settled in the colony. These includedEuropeans from many nations, Africanslaves, and Jews seeking religious freedom.The colony had a strong governor, PeterStuyvesant. Eventually, the Englishdrove the Dutch from the colony andrenamed it New York.What type of relationship existed between the Dutch and Native Americans living in New Netherland?The Dutch established friendly relations with the Iroquois, whom they supplied with guns to fight the Huron.