2Grain Structure & Nutrients (B.E.G.) BranThe edible, outer protective layer of a seedGreat source of fiber & vitaminsEndospermHolds food supply for plant to growContains mostly starch & proteinGermReproductive part of the plantRich in vitamins, minerals, protein & fatAll 3 of these parts = 1 kernel = a whole seed
3What is the major nutrient found in grains?! Carbohydrates!
4Starch What is it? What is it used for? A complex carbohydrate stored in plantsWheat flour, corn starch, and tapioca are starches commonly used in cookingWhat is it used for?Used as a thickening agentGravies & Sauces
5Flour Any grain can be made into flour Most use wheat flours for baking because the gluten is superiorgluten is the structure for baked goods!
6Types of Flour All-Purpose Flour: Made from milled & sifted blend of different wheat varietiesMostly made up of endospermTwo types to buy: bleached or unbleachedBleached is whiter than unbleachedNo nutritional difference
7Types of Flour (cont.) Cake Flour: Made from soft wheat It actually feels soft & satinyUsed for making cakes & other baked goods with delicate textures
8Types of Flour (cont.) Whole Wheat Flour: Made by milling the entire wheat kernelSo it contains the bran, endosperm, and germGives baked products a nutlike flavor & coarser texture than all-purpose flour
9Background Info: Grain Processing All grains must be processed, and this begins with removal of the outer husk.Whole GrainThe entire edible grain kernel is used.The resulting product contains most of the kernel’s original nutrients.Examples: whole wheat flour, whole-grain cerealsWhen the bran and germ are removed, many nutrients are lost.-Examples include white bread and most breakfast cereals. -When this happens, the grain products are enriched and fortified.Enrichment: a process in which some nutrients lost during processing are added back to the product.Fortified: a process of adding 10% or more of a specific nutrient to a product.
10Buying Nutritional Grains and Grain Products Choose whole grainsBuy enriched productsLow in fat, sugar, and sodium
11Rice White Rice: Starchy endosperm of rice kernel Brown Rice: The bran & germ were removedBrown Rice:Contains the bran, endosperm, & germHas the most nutritional valueClassifying Rice – according to grain length or method of processingLong grain rice = dry & fluffy when cookedSide dishesShort grain rice = small & sticky when cookedPuddings & Sushi
12Cooking Rice Goal = tender kernels that hold their shape & are fluffy Cook over: direct heat, in a double boiler, or in the ovenRule of Thumb:White rice requires twice its volume of waterExample: 1 cup uncooked + 2 cups waterRice should absorb all liquid used in cookingBrown rice will take twice as long to cook unless you soak it firstThis softens outer bran layer so it absorbs liquid more quickly
13Instant RiceHas been cooked, rinsed, and dried by a special process before packagingYou can prepare it in a matter of minutes!Follow package directions
14Pasta!! A nutritious, shaped dough Pasta dough is made from semolina Semolina is produced from a specially grown wheat for pasta making= Durum Wheat*Gives pasta a nutty flavor & firm shapeNoodles are made by adding egg to the pasta doughComes in many shapes & sizesCan be handmade or done with a pasta-making appliance
15Cooking Pasta Bring water to a boil How much water? Fill about ½ the pot, maybe a little moreAdd pasta gradually to boiling waterWater should not stop boiling as you add it, as it may stick together when cookingAs starch in pasta swells, it will double in sizeSimmer pasta until *al dente*(slightly firm, but tender)Drain but Do NOT rinse after drainingYou may add olive oil after it’s drained so the pasta does not stick together
16Other Grains To Be Familiar With BarleyBranBulgurCornmealCouscousCracked wheatGritsKashaMilletOatsQuinoa
17Let’s See It In Action!! Rice Pudding - Good Eats How to Make Pasta How to Cook Rice - Good EatsSushi Rice - Good Eats