Presentation on theme: "Grains. Grain Structure & Nutrients (B.E.G.) Bran The edible, outer protective layer of a seed Great source of fiber & vitamins Endosperm Holds food supply."— Presentation transcript:
Grain Structure & Nutrients (B.E.G.) Bran The edible, outer protective layer of a seed Great source of fiber & vitamins Endosperm Holds food supply for plant to grow Contains mostly starch & protein Germ Reproductive part of the plant Rich in vitamins, minerals, protein & fat All 3 of these parts = 1 kernel = a whole seed
What is the major nutrient found in grains?! Carbohydrates!
Starch What is it? –A complex carbohydrate stored in plants –Wheat flour, corn starch, and tapioca are starches commonly used in cooking What is it used for? –Used as a thickening agent Gravies & Sauces
Flour Any grain can be made into flour Most use wheat flours for baking because the gluten is superior – gluten is the structure for baked goods!
Types of Flour All-Purpose Flour: –Made from milled & sifted blend of different wheat varieties –Mostly made up of endosperm –Two types to buy: bleached or unbleached Bleached is whiter than unbleached No nutritional difference
Types of Flour (cont.) Cake Flour: –Made from soft wheat It actually feels soft & satiny –Used for making cakes & other baked goods with delicate textures
Types of Flour (cont.) Whole Wheat Flour: –Made by milling the entire wheat kernel So it contains the bran, endosperm, and germ –Gives baked products a nutlike flavor & coarser texture than all-purpose flour
Background Info: Grain Processing All grains must be processed, and this begins with removal of the outer husk. Whole Grain The entire edible grain kernel is used. The resulting product contains most of the kernels original nutrients. Examples: whole wheat flour, whole-grain cereals When the bran and germ are removed, many nutrients are lost. -Examples include white bread and most breakfast cereals. -When this happens, the grain products are enriched and fortified. Enrichment: a process in which some nutrients lost during processing are added back to the product. Fortified: a process of adding 10% or more of a specific nutrient to a product.
Buying Nutritional Grains and Grain Products Choose whole grains Buy enriched products Low in fat, sugar, and sodium
Rice White Rice: –Starchy endosperm of rice kernel The bran & germ were removed Brown Rice: –Contains the bran, endosperm, & germ –Has the most nutritional value Classifying Rice – according to grain length or method of processing –Long grain rice = dry & fluffy when cooked Side dishes –Short grain rice = small & sticky when cooked Puddings & Sushi
Cooking Rice Goal = tender kernels that hold their shape & are fluffy Cook over: direct heat, in a double boiler, or in the oven Rule of Thumb: –White rice requires twice its volume of water –Example: 1 cup uncooked + 2 cups water –Rice should absorb all liquid used in cooking Brown rice will take twice as long to cook unless you soak it first –This softens outer bran layer so it absorbs liquid more quickly
Instant Rice Has been cooked, rinsed, and dried by a special process before packaging You can prepare it in a matter of minutes! Follow package directions
Pasta!! A nutritious, shaped dough Pasta dough is made from semolina –Semolina is produced from a specially grown wheat for pasta making = Durum Wheat *Gives pasta a nutty flavor & firm shape Noodles are made by adding egg to the pasta dough Comes in many shapes & sizes Can be handmade or done with a pasta-making appliance
Cooking Pasta Bring water to a boil How much water? –Fill about ½ the pot, maybe a little more Add pasta gradually to boiling water Water should not stop boiling as you add it, as it may stick together when cooking As starch in pasta swells, it will double in size Simmer pasta until *al dente*(slightly firm, but tender) Drain but Do NOT rinse after draining –You may add olive oil after its drained so the pasta does not stick together
Other Grains To Be Familiar With Barley Bran Bulgur Cornmeal Couscous Cracked wheat Grits Kasha Millet Oats Quinoa
Lets See It In Action!! How to Make PastaHow to Make Pasta Rice Pudding - Good EatsRice Pudding - Good Eats How to Cook Rice - Good EatsHow to Cook Rice - Good Eats Sushi Rice - Good EatsSushi Rice - Good Eats