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Grains Foods and Nutrition
Grain An edible seed – member of grass family
Endosperm Starchy material in grain Used to make flour
Germ Plant embryo (reproduces new plant) Contains fat and vitamins B and E
Flour Finely ground grain- usually wheat Blend of hard and soft flour makes all- purpose flour
Bleached Flour Residue removed for better baking Most familiar
Enriched flour Since processed wheat loses nutrients, they are restored or “enriched” with: ◦ Iron ◦ B-vitamins ◦ Folic acid
Gluten Protein in Wheat flour – stretches to trap CO2 produced in baking, makes product rise
Barley Staple of the Middle East Oldest grain Used in soups, liquor, animal food Pearl-like in shape
Semolina Made from hard durum wheat (paste) used for making pasta
Bran Outer layer of grain Contains fiber, b-vitamins, minerals
Buckwheat Fruit of leafy plant Flour of this is used for pancakes, blintzes, soba noodles, Kasha
Bulgur Processed whole wheat(steamed,dry, cracked) Very nutritious
Corn Most common grain Some uses: animal feed, cornstarch, syrups, oil, and so much more! Also considered a vegetable
Polenta Porridge made from cornmeal
Couscous Made from Semolina Similar to pasta Fluffy rice-like wheat
Oats Originally weed in wheat or barley Oatmeal is made from rolled oats 95% of harvested is used for animal feed
Rice Half of the world’s population eats rice 3x per day. The word itself means “culture”
Brown Rice Only outer husk has been removed, bran remains intact High and fiber Rich, nutty flavor Longer to digest Makes you feel fuller, longer
White Rice Grain that has been milled and enriched
Minute rice Precooked and dried before packaging Very user friendly when time is an issue
Parboiled rice Soaked under pressure, steam and air dried Helps retain nutrients and keeps grains separate when cooking
Risotto Italian rice dish Uses arborio rice and chicken stock Short grain rice
Rye Originally a weed Used in breads in Europe and of course, U.S.
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