Oats cereals an ingredients in baked products and in some desserts (The cereals made from oats are usually made of the whole grain with only the outer husk removed. Because of this process, oat cereals are rich in nutrients.)
The Parts of the Grain: Bran - outside covering of the grain and consists of several layers. Cellulose is not digested, acts as a natural laxative and is sometimes called the “scrub brush” for the intestine, helping to keep the body regular. (fiber, B vitamins, minerals, protein) Endosperm - is the inner white portion. (complex carbohydrates, proteins, NO vitamins and minerals) Germ - found at one end of the kernel, is the sprouting part from which a new part grows. (B vitamins, vitamin E, iron, zinc, other minerals, unsaturated fat)
The Nutrient Contributions of the Grain: Bran and Germ are rich sources of minerals (iron and phosphorus), B vitamins (Thiamin - beriberi, Riboflavin - cheilosis, Niacin - pellagra), and cellulose. Endosperm is a rich source of starch but lacks vitamins, minerals, and cellulose. There are two forms of carbohydrates found in grains: starch for body energy and cellulose for regularity.
The forms of grains are: Whole grain Pearled grain Grits / steel cut / cracked Flakes / rolled Bran Germ Flour
Whole Grains Whole grains undergo the least amount of processing of any form of grain because only the outer hull is removed. This means that whole grains require the longest cooking time of any form of grain, but they are the most nutritious form of grain because the nutrient-rich bran and germ are left intact. Whole grains are also referred to as hulled grains. Whole-grain Buckwheat
Pearled Grains Grain that has been pearled refers to the removal of the bran layers resulting in grain with much less fiber. One advantage of pearled grain is that it cooks faster and is more tender than whole grain. Pearled grain is also known as polished grain. Pearled Barley
Grits Grits are a form of grain in which the kernels have been cut into smaller pieces so that they cook much more quickly. Grits are also known as steel- cut or cracked grains. Whole Hominy Quick Grits
Grain Flakes Grain flakes are created with a process in which the grain is steamed and rolled to produce flattened, or flaked kernels, which allows the grain to cook at a much faster rate. Grain flakes are also known as rolled grains. Rolled Oats
Meal Meal refers to grain that has been ground until it has a course, sandy texture. The meal is often used in breads and cereals. Cornmeal
Bran Bran is the nutrient packed layers covering the inner kernel of grain. Bran is basically indigestible, but it is loaded with fiber, which is important for digestive health. Some types of bran are so popular as a food supplement that they are sold as a separate product. Oat and rice bran are two of the more popular examples of grains in which some of the bran is removed during processing and ground into a meal to be used as a supplement or food additive. Oat Bran
Germ The germ is the embryo of a kernel of grain, located at the bottom center of the kernel. It is the oily part of a kernel or seed from which a new plant sprouts. It is loaded with vitamins and minerals so it is highly nutritious. The germ also contains fat, which decreases the shelf life of the grain and any grain product containing the germ. Wheat Germ
Flour Flour is a form of grain created by grinding and sifting grain into a powdered form that varies from very soft to coarse in texture. It is used as the main ingredient for making many breads, cakes, pastries, and other types of baked goods. Sorghum Flour
Wheat is known as the staff of life because of its availability around the world. It is a staple food because of its good keeping quality, high energy value and their relatively low cost.
Principles of Grain Cookery: Goal is to avoid lumps—two method to separate cereal granule. Cereals may be added slowly to rapidly boiling water while stirring. Fine cereals may be mixed with a small amount of cold water before they are stirred into boiling water.
Several things happen with starch is cooked: the starch absorbs water with heat and an excess of water, starch swells enormously with continued heating, starch becomes translucent thickness develops
Rice Types of rice: Brown rice - the whole grain form of rice Converted rice - the most nutrient dense Instant rice - precook and then dehydrated, cooks quickly and the yield is doubled There are three basic kinds of rice--short-grain, medium-grain, and long-grained--but among them, hundreds of different varieties. White rice is highly refined and polished and does not require washing before cooking. Recipes using other types of rice, such as Basmati, occasionally call for soaking or rinsing the rice before cooking to remove extra starch.
Preparing rice: 1.Double the amount of water for the rice. 2.Add salt and butter. 3.Add in rice. 4.Bring the water to a boil. 5. Turn heat to low and put on lid. 6.Cook for 20 - 25 minutes. Rice is done if no water is visible. 7.Fluff with a fork. 8.Rice triples as it cooks. 1 cup uncooked rice will yield 3 cups cooked.
Pasta Type of Pasta: spaghetti, macaroni, fettuccini, ravioli, lasagna, tortellini, linguini, egg noodles, etc. Pasta Facts: Pasta dishes are usually low cost entrees Store pasta in a tightly covered container at room temperature Pasta test for doneness - al dente (meaning firm to the tooth)
Preparing pasta: 1.In a large pot, fill pan with water 2/3’s full. 2.Add salt and oil if desired. 3.Bring to a boil. 4.Add pasta. 5.Cook uncovered, until al dente 10 - 12 minutes for dried pasta. 6.Drain. Pasta doubles as it cooks. 1 cup uncooked pasta will yield 2 cups cooked.