7Oatscerealsan ingredients in baked products and in some desserts (The cereals made from oats are usually made of the whole grain with only the outer husk removed. Because of this process, oat cereals are rich in nutrients.)
9The Parts of the Grain:Bran - outside covering of the grain and consists of several layers. Cellulose is not digested, acts as a natural laxative and is sometimes called the “scrub brush” for the intestine, helping to keep the body regular. (fiber, B vitamins, minerals, protein)Endosperm - is the inner white portion. (complex carbohydrates, proteins, NO vitamins and minerals)Germ - found at one end of the kernel, is the sprouting part from which a new part grows. (B vitamins, vitamin E, iron, zinc, other minerals, unsaturated fat)
10The Nutrient Contributions of the Grain: Bran and Germ are rich sources of minerals (iron and phosphorus), B vitamins (Thiamin - beriberi, Riboflavin - cheilosis, Niacin - pellagra), and cellulose.Endosperm is a rich source of starch but lacks vitamins, minerals, and cellulose. There are two forms of carbohydrates found in grains: starch for body energy and cellulose for regularity.
11The forms of grains are: Whole grainPearled grainGrits / steel cut / crackedFlakes / rolledBranGermFlour
12Whole GrainsWhole grains undergo the least amount of processing of any form of grain because only the outer hull is removed. This means that whole grains require the longest cooking time of any form of grain, but they are the most nutritious form of grain because the nutrient-rich bran and germ are left intact. Whole grains are also referred to as hulled grains.Whole-grain Buckwheat
13Pearled GrainsGrain that has been pearled refers to the removal of the bran layers resulting in grain with much less fiber. One advantage of pearled grain is that it cooks faster and is more tender than whole grain. Pearled grain is also known as polished grain.Pearled Barley
14GritsGrits are a form of grain in which the kernels have been cut into smaller pieces so that they cook much more quickly. Grits are also known as steel- cut or cracked grains.Whole Hominy Quick Grits
15Grain FlakesGrain flakes are created with a process in which the grain is steamed and rolled to produce flattened, or flaked kernels, which allows the grain to cook at a much faster rate. Grain flakes are also known as rolled grains.Rolled Oats
16MealMeal refers to grain that has been ground until it has a course, sandy texture. The meal is often used in breads and cereals.Cornmeal
17BranBran is the nutrient packed layers covering the inner kernel of grain. Bran is basically indigestible, but it is loaded with fiber, which is important for digestive health. Some types of bran are so popular as a food supplement that they are sold as a separate product. Oat and rice bran are two of the more popular examples of grains in which some of the bran is removed during processing and ground into a meal to be used as a supplement or food additive.Oat Bran
18GermThe germ is the embryo of a kernel of grain, located at the bottom center of the kernel. It is the oily part of a kernel or seed from which a new plant sprouts. It is loaded with vitamins and minerals so it is highly nutritious. The germ also contains fat, which decreases the shelf life of the grain and any grain product containing the germ.Wheat Germ
19FlourFlour is a form of grain created by grinding and sifting grain into a powdered form that varies from very soft to coarse in texture. It is used as the main ingredient for making many breads, cakes, pastries, and other types of baked goods.Sorghum Flour
20Wheatis known as the staff of life because of its availability around the world. It is a staple food because of its good keeping quality, high energy value and their relatively low cost.
21Principles of Grain Cookery: Goal is to avoid lumps—two method to separate cereal granule.Cereals may be added slowly to rapidly boiling water while stirring.Fine cereals may be mixed with a small amount of cold water before they are stirred into boiling water.
22Several things happen with starch is cooked: the starch absorbs waterwith heat and an excess of water, starch swells enormouslywith continued heating, starch becomes translucentthickness develops
23Rice Types of rice: Brown rice - the whole grain form of rice Converted rice - the most nutrient denseInstant rice - precook and then dehydrated, cooks quickly and the yield is doubledThere are three basic kinds of rice--short-grain, medium-grain, and long-grained--but among them, hundreds of different varieties.White rice is highly refined and polished and does not require washing before cooking. Recipes using other types of rice, such as Basmati, occasionally call for soaking or rinsing the rice before cooking to remove extra starch.
24Preparing rice: Double the amount of water for the rice. Add salt and butter.Add in rice .Bring the water to a boil.Turn heat to low and put on lid.Cook for minutes. Rice is done if no water is visible.Fluff with a fork.Rice triples as it cooks. 1 cup uncooked rice will yield 3 cups cooked.
25Pasta Type of Pasta: Pasta Facts: spaghetti, macaroni, fettuccini, ravioli, lasagna, tortellini, linguini, egg noodles, etc.Pasta Facts:Pasta dishes are usually low cost entreesStore pasta in a tightly covered container at room temperaturePasta test for doneness - al dente (meaning firm to the tooth)
26Preparing pasta: In a large pot, fill pan with water 2/3’s full. Add salt and oil if desired.Bring to a boil.Add pasta.Cook uncovered, until al dente minutes for dried pasta.Drain.Pasta doubles as it cooks. 1 cup uncooked pasta will yield 2 cups cooked.