2What are Grains??? Germ Tiny embryo that will grow into a new plant EndospermFood supply for a seed’s embryo, made up of proteins, starches, and other nutrientsBranThe edible, outer protective layer of a seed
3Nutrients in GrainsEndosperm: complex carbohydrates, proteins, and small amounts of vitamins and mineralsBran: rich in fiber, B vitamins, and some trace mineralsGerm: B vitamins, vitamin E, iron, zinc, and other trace minerals; some protein, and a small amount of saturated fat
4Grain ProcessingAll grains must be processed, and this begins with removal of the outer husk.Whole GrainThe entire edible grain kernel is used, the resulting product contains most of the kernel’s original nutrients. Examples: whole wheat flour, whole-grain cerealsWhen the bran and germ are removed, many nutrients are lost. Examples include white bread and most breakfast cereals. When this happens, the grain products are enriched and fortified.Enrichment: a process in which some nutrients lost as a result of processing are added back to the product.Fortified: a process of adding 10% or more of the Daily Value for a specific nutrient to a product.
5Buying Grains and Grain Products Choose whole grainsBuy enriched productsLow in fat, sugar, and sodium
6Rice Short grained rice The grains are almost round. When cooked, the rice is moist and the grains stick together.Good for creamy dishes and molded rice rings or to eat with chopsticks
7Rice Medium grained rice The grains are plump, tender, and moist. They stick together, but not as much as short-grain rice.
8RiceLong grainsWhen cooked, the grains are fluffy and stay separated.
9Brown Rice White Rice Converted Rice Instant Rice Brown rice is less processed than white rice. It is the “whole-grain version of rice.White RiceWhite rice has the bran and germ removedConverted RiceRice has been parboiled (briefly boiled) to save nutrients before the hull is removed.Instant RiceRice has been precooked and dehydrated. It takes only minutes to prepare.
10Other GrainsBarley: mild-flavored, hardy grain, used in soups and stewsBrans: The ground bran of oat, rice or wheat can be purchased to use as a hot cereals or in baking.Bulgur: Wheat kernels that have been steamed, dried, and crushed. Tender with a chewy texture. Used in main dishes, salads, and as a side dish.
11Other GrainsCornmeal: Coarsely ground dried corn, used as a breakfast cereal and bakingCouscous (KOOS-koos): Steamed, cracked endosperm of wheat kernel. Has a nutty flaovr and used in cereal, salad , main dishes, and sweetened for dessert.Cracked wheat: Crushed wheat berries wsith a very tough and chewy texture. Often added to bread.Grits: Coarsely ground endosperm of corn.Kasha: Roasted buckwheat that is hulled and crushed. Has a pleasant, nutty flavor. Used as breakfast cereal or side dish.
12Other GrainsMillet: Small, yellow grains with a mild flavor. Used in breads, cereals, or side dishes.Oats: Often eaten as a hot cereal or used in baked goods.Quinoa (KEEN-wah): A small ivory colored, rice-like grain, and cooks faster than rice.
13Ready-to-Eat and Instant Cereals Breakfast cereals are among the largest selling foods in the U.S. $1billion spent annually!Choose nutritious cereals! Remember ingredients are listed by quantity. Avoid cereals high in sugar!
14Cooking PrinciplesRice is usually simmered, using just the amount of water that the grain can absorb.Boil waterAdd riceCoverBring to a boil againSimmerFollow package directions for amounts and time, since they vary with the type of rice.