Presentation on theme: "Grains Chapter 32. What are Grains??? Germ Tiny embryo that will grow into a new plant Endosperm Food supply for a seed’s embryo, made up of proteins,"— Presentation transcript:
Grains Chapter 32
What are Grains??? Germ Tiny embryo that will grow into a new plant Endosperm Food supply for a seed’s embryo, made up of proteins, starches, and other nutrients Bran The edible, outer protective layer of a seed
Nutrients in Grains Endosperm: complex carbohydrates, proteins, and small amounts of vitamins and minerals Bran: rich in fiber, B vitamins, and some trace minerals Germ: B vitamins, vitamin E, iron, zinc, and other trace minerals; some protein, and a small amount of saturated fat
Grain Processing All grains must be processed, and this begins with removal of the outer husk. Whole Grain The entire edible grain kernel is used, the resulting product contains most of the kernel’s original nutrients. Examples: whole wheat flour, whole-grain cereals When the bran and germ are removed, many nutrients are lost. Examples include white bread and most breakfast cereals. When this happens, the grain products are enriched and fortified. Enrichment: a process in which some nutrients lost as a result of processing are added back to the product. Fortified: a process of adding 10% or more of the Daily Value for a specific nutrient to a product.
Buying Grains and Grain Products Choose whole grains Buy enriched products Low in fat, sugar, and sodium
Rice Short grained rice –The grains are almost round. When cooked, the rice is moist and the grains stick together. –Good for creamy dishes and molded rice rings or to eat with chopsticks
Rice Medium grained rice –The grains are plump, tender, and moist. They stick together, but not as much as short-grain rice.
Rice Long grains –When cooked, the grains are fluffy and stay separated.
Brown Rice Brown rice is less processed than white rice. It is the “whole-grain version of rice. White Rice White rice has the bran and germ removed Rice has been parboiled (briefly boiled) to save nutrients before the hull is removed. Converted Rice Instant Rice Rice has been precooked and dehydrated. It takes only minutes to prepare.
Other Grains Barley: mild-flavored, hardy grain, used in soups and stews Brans: The ground bran of oat, rice or wheat can be purchased to use as a hot cereals or in baking. Bulgur: Wheat kernels that have been steamed, dried, and crushed. Tender with a chewy texture. Used in main dishes, salads, and as a side dish.
Other Grains Cornmeal: Coarsely ground dried corn, used as a breakfast cereal and baking Couscous (KOOS-koos): Steamed, cracked endosperm of wheat kernel. Has a nutty flaovr and used in cereal, salad, main dishes, and sweetened for dessert. Cracked wheat: Crushed wheat berries wsith a very tough and chewy texture. Often added to bread. Grits: Coarsely ground endosperm of corn. Kasha: Roasted buckwheat that is hulled and crushed. Has a pleasant, nutty flavor. Used as breakfast cereal or side dish.
Other Grains Millet: Small, yellow grains with a mild flavor. Used in breads, cereals, or side dishes. Oats: Often eaten as a hot cereal or used in baked goods. Quinoa (KEEN-wah): A small ivory colored, rice-like grain, and cooks faster than rice.
Ready-to-Eat and Instant Cereals Breakfast cereals are among the largest selling foods in the U.S. $1billion spent annually! Choose nutritious cereals! Remember ingredients are listed by quantity. Avoid cereals high in sugar!
Cooking Principles Rice is usually simmered, using just the amount of water that the grain can absorb. 1.Boil water 2.Add rice 3.Cover 4.Bring to a boil again 5.Simmer 6.Follow package directions for amounts and time, since they vary with the type of rice.