Presentation on theme: "Foods 266. Grains are the seed or part of the plant that people eat. The main nutrients found in grain foods are carbohydrates and fat. Whole grain products."— Presentation transcript:
Grains are the seed or part of the plant that people eat. The main nutrients found in grain foods are carbohydrates and fat. Whole grain products contain all 3 parts of the kernel. Refined products had the bran and germ removed during processing.
Grains are usually dried for storage Cooking grains with liquid rehydrates the grain and makes it tender and edible.
People all around the world value grains as an important part their food supply. Large variety Easy to store High nutritional value
Served around the world Increases in volume as it cooks yielding a high profit Many varieties of rice- all of which come in short, medium and long grain
Brown rice has had the hull removed, but contains the bran, germ and endosperm = whole grain Takes longer to cook & needs more water Chewy texture & nutty taste White rice contains only the endosperm = less vitamins & minerals Cooks quickly with less water Lighter texture Parboiled or converted rice and instant rice have been partially or fully cooked and then dried Allows the consumer to prepare it in minimal time
Many interesting & flavorful rices that are eaten around the world have become popular in the U.S. Arborio Basmati Jasmine Red Rice Wild Rice Arborio rice is used for risotto Basmati & Jasmine rice are used commonly in Indian & middle eastern cooking, as well as pilafs Red rice is similar to brown rice, but with a red hue & earthy flavor Wild rice is not actually a rice, but a wild water grass!
It’s more than just flour & bread! Very versatile grain that is milled into semolina and cracked wheat- both good for side dishes, stuffings and casseroles Couscous is made from semolina Semolina flour is used to make pasta Cracked wheat is known as Bulgar
Corn is the only grain that is also served fresh as a vegetable As a dried grain, it comes in two main forms: Cornmeal Hominy Cornmeal is used to make breads and polenta Hominy is used to make Mexican posole soup. It is also cracked or ground to produce grits or masa harina used to make tortillas.
Barley is a hardy grain that can be grown in most climates It is available unmilled or in a form called pearled barley, which has been milled & polished Barley is often added to soups & stews giving them a hearty consistency Barley makes a great poultry or vegetable stuffing Barley can also be used for side dishes, like in this barley pilaf
Oats can be purchased as oatmeal, or in whole grain form as groats or oat berries Oatmeal is a plain, hot cereal that is easy to “dress up” It also makes a nutritious & flavorful addition to cookies & breads Groats can also be served as a hot cereal, or used like other grains for stuffings & side dishes
Rye is a grass grown mainly for grain It is closely related to wheat & barley Rye flour is used to make rye breads It is also used in the production on vodka & some beers Ergot, a fungus which attacks the rye grain can cause ergot poisoning, a.k.a. St. Anthony’s fire, and is linked to hysterical symptoms of young women that spurred the Salem witch trials!Salem witch trials
Quinoa is high in protein It cooks fast, similar to couscous Makes a nutritious substitution for rice in almost any recipe Can be added to soups & stews Can be the base of both hot side dishes or cold salads Works well as a stuffing base
Known as Kasha Not related to the “wheat” plant Roasted buckwheat can be purchased ground or cracked Buckwheat contains no gluten Buckwheat flour can be used in both quick breads & yeast breads, and in cereals Buckwheat (Soba) noodles play an important role in Japanese & Korean cuisine Buckwheat “porridge” has been a common peasant food in western Asia & Eastern Europe
Starch is a complex carbohydrate stored in plants Cereal grains, like rice & barley are high in starch Cooks use starches like wheat flour, cornstarch and tapioca as thickening agents
When a starch is mixed with a cold liquid, and then heated to a boil, the starch granules swell and the mixture thickens. This process is called gelatinization. A slurry of flour & water can be added to meat drippings and stock to produce a gravy Milk & eggs are cooked with cornstarch to thicken a pudding or custard Tapioca can be boiled with fruit juices to make a fruit sauce or thicken a pie filling
Many grains can be boiled, like in this polenta preparation Some are boiled until all liquid is absorbed, others are boiled until tender and then excess liquid is drained away Other grains, like rice, are steamed until cooking liquid is completely absorbed Many grain side dishes are prepared by braising, or the “pilaf method” where the grain is first sautéed with fat & aromatics before a cooking liquid is added to finish the cooking by steaming
Although time consuming, the risotto method produces grain dishes that are creamy, due to the slow release of starch. This method is like a combination of the boiling & pilaf method, where the grain is first sautéed, and then cooking liquid is added in small amounts, over & over, stirring constantly with each addition until the liquid has absorbed. Butter, olive oil or cheese is often stirred in just before serving.