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Part 3 The Preparation of Food

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2 Part 3 The Preparation of Food
Chapter 14 Grain Foods Part 3 The Preparation of Food Note: This chapter covers types of cereal products, food science principles of cooking starches, and information on preparing cereal products. This presentation displays the text objective related to each of these topics, followed by information to help students achieve the objective. Revere

3 Objective List a variety of cereal products.
Discuss: How many cereal products can you name? List a variety of cereal products.

4 Breakfast Foods Ready-to-eat cereals Quick-cooking/instant cereals
Discuss: What types of grains are most commonly used to make breakfast foods? Ready-to-eat cereals Quick-cooking/instant cereals Raw/old-fashioned cereals

5 Flour All-purpose flour Cake flour Instant/quick-mixing flour
Discuss: What grain is used to make all the types of flour listed here? Why are these types of flour most often used for baking? What are some other types of flour? All-purpose flour Cake flour Instant/quick-mixing flour Self-rising flour Whole wheat flour

6 Rice White and brown rice Parboiled/converted rice
Precooked/instant rice Wild rice Discuss: What is the difference between white and brown rice? What is the difference between long grain and short grain rice? National Chicken Council

7 Pasta Pasta is a nutritious, shaped dough that may or may not be dried. It is made from semolina, which is produced from durum wheat. Discuss: Why is durum wheat used for making pasta? What are the names of some popular pasta shapes?

8 Other Grain Products Cornmeal Hominy Cornstarch Pearl barley
Bulgur wheat Wheat germ Farina Couscous Discuss: What grains are used to make each of these products?

9 Objective Describe how heat and liquids affect starches.
Discuss: How can an understanding of the effects of heat and liquids on starches help you when preparing grain foods? Describe how heat and liquids affect starches.

10 Cooking Starches Starch is a complex carbohydrate stored in plants. Wheat flour, cornstarch, and tapioca are starches commonly used as thickening agents in cooking. Discuss: What types of foods are thickened with starches? What type of starch was probably used to thicken the fruit sauces on these tarts? Why?

11 Effects of Dry Heat on Starch
Discuss: How might these effects be viewed as both desirable and undesirable? Increased solubility Some loss of thickening power Dark crust Toasted flavor

12 Effects of Moist Heat on Starch
Starch granules become soluble, absorb water, and swell. Starch mixture thickens. Discuss: What is the name of the thickening process that occurs when starches are mixed with water and heated?

13 Factors Affecting Starch-Thickened Mixtures
Temperature – moderate Time – a little longer than required for gelatinization Agitation – gentle Mixing method coat with fat combine with sugar mix with cold liquid Discuss: What happens if a starch-thickened mixture is cooked at too high a temperature? What happens if a starch-thickened mixture is stirred too rapidly? Why is it important to use one of the mixing methods listed here?

14 Objective Prepare cooked breakfast cereals, rice, and pasta.
Discuss: What are some entrees that include cereal, rice, and pasta products as main ingredients? Prepare cooked breakfast cereals, rice, and pasta.

15 Preparing Cooked Breakfast Cereals
Use recommended amount of water. To prevent lumping, slowly add dry cereal to boiling water or mix first with cold water to form a paste. Gently stir cereal with a fork. Cook cereal until it thickens and absorbs all the water. Discuss: What can you do to make whole grain cereals cook more quickly? What type of heat is best for cooking cereals?

16 Preparing Rice Cook over direct heat, in a double boiler, or in the oven. Use recommended proportions of rice and water and cook until all liquid is absorbed. Discuss: Describe the texture and appearance of properly cooked rice. How can you give rice a more interesting flavor? National Chicken Council

17 Preparing Pasta Add pasta gradually to boiling water.
Simmer just until tender. Drain but do not rinse cooked pasta. Discuss: Why does pasta require more cooking water than other cereal products? Why should cooked pasta not be rinsed? National Pasta Association

18 Apply It! Your sister is recovering from an upset stomach. She says she doesn’t feel like eating much besides oatmeal, plain noodles, or white rice. Discuss: How might you add flavor interest to these foods once your sister is feeling better? Describe how you will prepare one of these foods for your sister.

19 Key Question Note: Encourage students to use this question to help them review chapter information and apply it to their lives. How will you select, store, and prepare grain foods to help meet your meal management goals?

20 Other Questions to Consider
What is the difference between whole grain and refined cereal products? What nutrients do cereal products provide in the diet? How can cereal products be prepared in a microwave oven? Discuss: What other questions did this chapter raise that you would like to explore?

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