Presentation on theme: "What is the purpose of Grains? The Power of grains in quick breads & baked goods."— Presentation transcript:
What is the purpose of Grains? The Power of grains in quick breads & baked goods.
A grain is a plant product used to create a variety of food products. A grain is considered to be a starch. Examples of grain by-products include but are not limited to rice, pasta, wheat, cereal, corn starch, & couscous.
All grains have a kernel which includes 3 main parts. 1. bran- the outer covering of the kernel. Contains most of the vitamins & fiber 2. endosperm- largest part of the kernel and contains the starch and protein 3. germ- smallest part of the kernel and considered the reproductive part of the plant. It is rich in vitamins, minerals, & proteins
Grains are divided into two main categories, whole grains and refined grains. Whole grains and whole grain by-products contain all 3 parts of the kernel. Refined grains contain no bran or germ. The bran and the germ have been removed during processing. Essential vitamins and other nutrients have been removed as well.
Federal law requires that when grains are refined during processing, they then need to be enriched. Enriching grains simply means that nutrients that have been lost during processing later need to be added. Nutrients added include thiamin, folic acid, iron and etc.
Any grain can be made into a flour. Wheat flour is desired the most when baking. The protein gluten in wheat flour provides the structure for baked goods. Starch is also found in flour. Flour can be used as a thickening agent for sauces and gravies.
Gelatinization- a starch such as flour is added to liquid. The starch soaks up the liquid and starts to swell which will cause the liquid to thicken. Example: adding flour and heat to fat drippings from a baked roast. Syneresis- when a gravy or sauce begins to cool, chemical molecular bonds are formed and a thin gel or film is visible on top to the sauce or gravy.
Temperature- heat must be hot enough to make the starch absorb the liquid Time- to prevent raw flour or a starchy taste in foods, be sure to cook the starch for the appropriate length of time. Agitation- when starch such a flour or corn starch is added to a liquid, whisking briskly is necessary to prevent lumps and clumps.