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Global land monitoring in Europes Earth observation programme (GMES) Alan Belward Joint Research Centre Ispra (VA) Italy

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Presentation on theme: "Global land monitoring in Europes Earth observation programme (GMES) Alan Belward Joint Research Centre Ispra (VA) Italy"— Presentation transcript:

1 Global land monitoring in Europes Earth observation programme (GMES) Alan Belward Joint Research Centre Ispra (VA) Italy Europe has decided to develop its own operational Earth observation capacity in order to reflect the EUs growing responsibility in European and world affairs COM(2009) 223 final

2 Outline Europes Earth Observation Programme (GMES)* was adopted 9th November 2010 This includes both spacecraft (Sentinels) and services (the GMES Initial Operations) A land service is underway GMES is the main space contribution of the Union to tackle climate change** **COM(2010) 614; An Integrated Industrial Policy for the Globalisation Era *COM(2009) 223; The European Earth Observation Programme (GMES) and its Initial Operations

3 An operational EO Programme Overall framework –space component (ESA coordination) –in-situ component (EEA coordination) –service component (EC coordination) land, marine, atmosphere, emergency response, climate change, security Funding leading up to the regulation –2003 – 2006 the EU and ESA spent 100m each on GMES projects –2007 – 2013 the EU budgeted 430m for GMES project work –2007 – 2013 the EU contributed 624m to the total ESA GMES space component budget of 2246m Funding for GMES Initial Operations (GIO) –2011 – 2013 the EU has allocated 107m to the implementation of the Regulation –2011 – 2013 the EU has redeployed an additional 43m from the research budget Sentinel 1 (C-band SAR) a and b Sentinel 2 (13 channel MSI) a and b Sentinel 3 (21 channel OLCI) a and b Images courtesy of ESA 2.9bn 150m

4 COM(2009) 223 final The GMES services will allow policy-makers in particular to: –prepare national, European and international legislation on environmental matters, including climate change; –monitor implementation of this legislation; GMES is a tool for cooperation linked to development, humanitarian aid and emergency situations worldwide and, more specifically, with Africa

5 Land monitoring service Reference data: basic geographic framework Local component: 1 m resolution mapping of Urban Areas ( ) and extension to other hot spots e.g. Biodiversity protection sites Pan-European component: Land Use / Cover Area mapping at 10 m resolution Global component: the terrestrial essential climate variables, modelling and hot spots Corine small water bodies EMMA/emma/index.php Urban atlas (Dublin)

6 The GCOS ECVs (2010 update) Implementation Plan for the Global Observing System for Climate in Support of the UNFCCC (2010 Update) FINAL DRAFT (v2.0) 19 July 2010 GCOS Secretariat GCOS-138 WMO/TD-No. 1523

7 Main FAPAR product providers. Projects/InstitutionInput dataOutput productRetrieval MethodReferences JRC-FAPAR ESA MERIS Top of Atmosphere (TOA) BRFs in blue, red and near- infrared bands Instantaneous green FAPAR based on direct incoming radiation Optimization Formulae based on Radiative Transfer Models Gobron et al (2000, 2006, 2008) NASA MODIS LAI/FPAR Surface reflectance in 7 spectral bands and land cover map. FAPAR with direct and diffuse incoming radiation Inversion of 3D Model versus land cover type with backup solution based on NDVI relationship) Knyazikhin et al. (1998b) NASA MISR LAI/FPAR Surface products BHR, DHR & BRF in blue, green, red and near-infrared bands + CART FAPAR with direct and diffuse incoming radiation. Inversion of 3D Model versus land cover type with backup solution based on NDVI relationship) Knyazikhin et al. (1998a) GLOBCARBONSurface reflectance red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared Instantaneous FAPAR (Black leaves) Parametric relation with LAI as function as Land cover type. Plummer et al. (2006) CYCLOPESSurface reflectance in the blue, red, NIR and SWIR bands FAPAR at 10:00 solar local time Neural networkBaret et al (2007) LANDSAFVisible and Near-Infrared bandsFAPARParametric relationRoujean and Breon (1995) JRC-TIPBroadband Surface albedo in visible and near-infrared bands. FAPAR & Green FAPAR for direct & diffuse incoming radiation Inversion of two-stream model using the Adjoint and Hessian codes of a cost function. Pinty et al. (2007) N. Gobron & M. M. Verstraete (2009) FAPAR: assessment report on available methodological standards and guides, GTOS-65

8 onwards

9 April 2002 onwards


11 Satellite Derived FAPAR Anomalies Anomalies Base period Gobron et al GRL

12 fAPAR Anomalies Gobron et al GRL

13 Relative fraction of land surface showing fAPAR anomaly Gobron et al GRL

14 May 2010 fAPAR anomalies

15 June 2010 fAPAR anomalies

16 July 2010 fAPAR anomalies

17 Crossing scales ETMMERIS ETM MERIS


19 Decision 4/CP.15

20 Source Bartholome and Belward JRC

21 Samples are 20km x 20km size Systematic sampling sample sites Tropical Latin America & Caribbean (LAC): 1230 sample sites Sub-Saharan Africa (AFR):2045 sample sites South and Southeast Asia plus PNG and the Solomon Islands (SEA): 741 sample sites ->

22 Acquisition dates for satellite imagery used for the year 2000 period Acquisition dates for satellite imagery used for the year 1990 period

23 Data gaps 1990 / 2000 Data gaps 2005

24 Cloud cover evaluation of TREES-3 sample sites for the year 1990 period (in percent) Cloud cover evaluation of TREES-3 sample sites for the year 2000 period (in percent)

25 Tree cover loss Tree to other wooded land and other vegetation (red = deforestation green = aforestation) Other wooded land loss Other wooded land to other vegetation (orange = loss of other wooded land green = gain of other wooded land) Distribution of Land cover in 1990 Global monitoring of Tree Cover Changes : First results on East Africa (Source Brink and Bodart JRC)

26 Photo credit

27 Deforestation Photo credit, JRC

28 Deforestation; humid tropics 5.8 mha/yr Photo credit, JRC

29 Deforestation; humid tropics 5.8 mha/yr, 13 mha/yr globally Photo credit, JRC

30 Deforestation; emissions ~ 1.2 Pg C yr –1 5.8 mha/yr humid tropics Achard et al. (2002), Science 297, mha/yr globally FAO (2010) Global Forest Resource Assessment Key Findings Photo credit, JRC …less than 3 seconds to clear a football field Emissions; van der Werf et al, 2009, Nature BiogeoSciences

31 Sentinel 2 bands (courtesy ESA) 10 m20 m60 m Sentinel 2 simulations (Courtesy ESA) Sentinel 2 simulations (Courtesy ESA)

32 Europes EO satellites - 23rd November 1977… 19 th June 1981 Meteosat 2 22 nd February 1986 SPOT 1 15 th June 1988 Meteosat 3 6 th March 1989 Meteosat 4 22 nd January 1990 SPOT 2 2 nd March 1991 Meteosat 5 17 th July 1991 ERS-1 26 th September 1993 SPOT 3 20 th November 1993 Meteosat 6 21 st April 1995 ERS-2 2 nd September 1997 Meteosat 7 24 th March 1998 SPOT 4 1 st March 2002 ENVISAT 4 th May 2002 SPOT 5 28 th August 2002 Meteosat 8 27 th October 2005 TopSat 21 st December 2005 Meteosat 9 19 th October 2006 MetOp-A 7 th June 2007 COSMOSkyMed 15 th June 2007 TerraSAR-X 9 th December 2007 COSMOSkyMed 29 th August 2008 RapidEyes 1 to 5 24 th October 2008 COSMOSkyMed 29 th July 2009 UKDMC2, Demios 1 5 th November 2010 COSMOSkymed

33 23rd November 1977… ©CNES, ©DMCii, ©ASICosmoSkyMed, ©ESA, ©EUMETSAT, ©DLR

34 Summary Continuity of observation is extremely likely (virtually certain up to launch…) Continuity of GCOS ECV generation is very likely(GEOSS, CEOS Working Groups Climate and WGCV for characterisation / validation) Global cloud free optical data sets at high-resolution for key historical epochs e.g are unlikely - but not exceptionally unlikely Data acquisition strategies and data policy need to (continue to) be tuned to global scales – priority areas are known Partnership is key; GEOSS, GCOS, CEOS

35 Acknowledgements FAPAR; Nadine Gobron TREES-3 optical remote sensing team; Frédéric Achard, René Beuchle, Hugh Eva, Hans-Juergen Stibig, Silvia Carboni, Rastislav Raši, François Donnay, Andreas Brink, Catherine Bodart, Philippe Mayaux, Dario Simonetti, Desirée Johansson, Ouns Kissiyar, Michael Vollmar FAO partners from the Forest Resource Assessment GMES Bureau staff Landsat Data Continuity Mission Science Team GCOS secretariat, steering committee and science panels

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