Presentation on theme: "The Collapse of Rome The Western Roman Empire fell in 476 C.E. Eastern Roman Empire remained intact for another 1,000 years (capital = Constantinople)."— Presentation transcript:
The Collapse of Rome The Western Roman Empire fell in 476 C.E. Eastern Roman Empire remained intact for another 1,000 years (capital = Constantinople). The Christian Church kept elements of Roman civilization. When Rome fell, there was a breakdown in central authority, people started looking to LOCAL rulers for protection and guidance as there was no government, king or one ruler in charge.
Under Emperor Constantine, the Roman Empire was divided into the Western Empire (with the capital in Rome) and the Eastern Empire (with the capital in Constantinople).
So begins the “Middle Ages” (medieval is the latin word for middle) in between Ancient Rome and the Renaissance! Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000 C.E. High Middle Ages: 1000 – 1250 C.E. Late Middle Ages: 1250 – 1500 C.E. This time frame has often been called the “Dark Ages” due to the cultural and economic deterioration and absence of a strong and stable government!
Ch.8, Sec. 1: Charlemagne Was crowned king of Roman Empire by Pope Leo III (approx. 800 C.E.) He tried to unify his lands and spread Christianity Revived Latin learning Widened the split between east and west When he died, Europe was once again in chaos!
Pope Crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800
Ch. 8 Sec. 2: Feudalism & the Manor Economy Feudalism: a loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their landholdings among lesser lords. Feudal contract: the relationship between lords and vassals was established by an exchange of pledges = “contract”.
FEUDALISM: A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service.
Peasants and Manor Life Heart of Medieval economy was the manor = the Lord’s estate. Included one or more villages and the surrounding lands. Peasants worked and lived on the manor. Most peasants were serfs — not slaves! YET they were bound to the land, NOT free to go wherever they wanted, so if a new lord took over the land - the serfs came with the land/estate.
Mutual Rights and Obligations NoblesPeasants OBLIGATIONS Military service to lord Protected vassals Worked land for the lord several days a week Repair roads, bridges and fences Pay the lord a fee to get married and use local mill. RIGHTS & BELIEFS Granted fiefs for service to lord Controlled peasants and towns on fief Right to be protected by the lord Could not be forced off the land Allowed to farm part of fief for themselves THEIR LIVES Constantly at war with other lords Lived in castles Serfs were bound to the land Produced almost everything they needed Harsh living conditions
Manor Life Manors were self- sufficient: they grew all the food they needed. Remember feudal Europe was filled with fighting, so they couldn’t rely on others for food!
The Life of a Peasant/Serf Peasants: Worked from sun up to sun down (worked and lived on the manor) Ate a simple diet of black bread with vegetables Few peasants lived beyond 35 because of disease Produced everything they needed like clothes, furniture, tools No schooling or knowledge of the outside world
Feudal Warfare Knowing that feudal Europe was about kings striving to keep local power, warfare was a way of life. Rival lords battled constantly for power. Nobles trained from boyhood for an occupation as a KNIGHT mounted warrior.
CHIVALRY Chivalry: code of conduct Loyal, brave, true Fight fairly, treat a captive knight well Applied to nobility NOT commoners
Ch. 8, Sec. 2: Cornell Notes Cues:Notes Summary: Through interdependence, feudalism provided people with protection and other benefits. Everyone in medieval society had a clearly defined role.