Presentation on theme: "14 The Formation of Western Europe, 800–1500"— Presentation transcript:
114 The Formation of Western Europe, 800–1500 QUIT14CHAPTERThe Formation of Western Europe, 800–1500Chapter OverviewTime Line1Church Reform and the CrusadesSECTIONMAP2Trade, Towns, and Financial RevolutionSECTIONSECTION3England and France Develop4A Century of TurmoilGRAPHSECTIONVisual Summary
214 The Formation of Western Europe, 800–1500 HOME14CHAPTERThe Formation of Western Europe, 800–1500Chapter OverviewThe Church is revitalized but its Crusades fail to capture Jerusalem. Rising prosperity and trade create thriving towns. France and England develop more representative government. Bubonic plague and the Hundred Years’ War bring an end to the Middle Ages.
314 The Formation of Western Europe, 800–1500 HOME Time Line 800 1500 CHAPTERThe Formation of Western Europe, 800–1500Time Line987 Capetian dynasty begins in France.1096 First Crusade begins.1347 Bubonic plague strikes Europe.8001500910 Benedictine Abbey founded at Cluny, France.1066 Norman invasion of England.1215 King John approves Magna Carta.1453 Hundred Years’ War ends with French victory.
4Church Reform and the Crusades Key Idea 1 HOME1Church Reformand the CrusadesKey IdeaA spiritual revival leads to Church reform, new religious orders, and the building of Gothic cathedrals. The Crusades, though unsuccessful, strengthen European monarchies and increase trade with the Middle East.OverviewAssessment
5Church Reform and the Crusades Overview 1 • simony HOME1Church Reformand the CrusadesTERMS & NAMESOverview• simony• St. Francis of Assisi• Gothic• Urban II• Crusade• Saladin• Richard the Lion-Hearted• Reconquista• InquisitionMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe Catholic Church underwent reform and launched Crusades (religious wars) against Muslims and others.The Crusades resulted in trade and exploration between Christians and Muslims but left a legacy of distrust.Assessment
6Church Reform and the Crusades 1 1 HOME1Church Reformand the CrusadesSection1Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List six key events that summarize the Age of Faith.1090s Pope calls for the First Crusade.1187 Jerusalemfalls to Saladin.1492 Reconquista ends in Spain.900100011001200130014001500910Benedictine monastery founded at Cluny.1099 Jerusalemis captured by Christians.1204 Christian knights loot Constantinople.continued . . .
7Church Reform and the Crusades 1 1 HOME1Church Reformand the CrusadesSection1Assessment2. Which of the Church’s problems—marriage of priests, simony, lay investiture—do you think was most harmful to the Church? Why? THINK ABOUT• the effects of each problem• the reforms that corrected each problemANSWERPossible Responses:• Priests’ marriages undermined the authority of the Church.• Simony rewarded wealth, not merit.• Lay investiture made bishops the pawns of kings.End of Section 1
8Trade, Towns, and Financial Revolution Key Idea 2 HOME2Trade, Towns, andFinancial RevolutionMAPKey IdeaNew farming methods and a growing food supply lead to expansion of trade and finance and the growth of towns. Interest in learning is revived as universities are established and ancient works are rediscovered.OverviewAssessment
9Trade, Towns, and Financial Revolution Overview 2 • three-field system HOME2Trade, Towns, andFinancial RevolutionMAPTERMS & NAMESOverview• three-field system• guild• burgher• vernacular• Dante Alighieri• Geoffrey Chaucer• Thomas Aquinas• scholasticsMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWEuropean cities challenged the feudal system as agriculture, trade, finance, and universities developed.The various changes in the Middle Ages laid the foundations for modern Europe.Assessment
10Changes in Medieval Society HOME2Trade, Towns, andFinancial RevolutionMAPSection2Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Describe how medieval society changed between 1000 and 1300.Changes in Medieval SocietyAgriculture improvesPopulation increasesTowns growUniversities ariseTrade expandscontinued . . .
11Trade, Towns, and Financial Revolution 2 2 HOME2Trade, Towns, andFinancial RevolutionMAPSection2Assessment2. What was the effect of towns on the feudal system?THINK ABOUT• where the new townsfolk came from• the saying “Town air makes you free”• the changes experienced by townspeopleANSWERPossible Response:Towns undermined the feudal system by offering former serfs and new town dwellers economic and social opportunities. These burghers worked together to secure their freedom from lords.continued . . .
12Trade, Towns, and Financial Revolution 2 2 HOME2Trade, Towns, andFinancial RevolutionMAPSection2Assessment3. How did guilds improve the quality of goods and business practices? THINK ABOUT• who enforced standards of quality• who could become guild membersANSWERPossible Responses:• Guilds set standards for quality, weights, measures, and prices for their goods, such as a loaf of bread.• An individual had to master a craft before becoming a guild member.End of Section 2
13England and France Develop Key Idea 3 HOME3England andFrance DevelopKey IdeaEngland, united under the Normans, and France, united by the Capetian dynasty, take the first steps toward representative government. King John is forced to sign the Magna Carta, and Philip IV includes commoners in the council.OverviewAssessment
14England and France Develop Overview 3 • William the Conqueror HOME3England andFrance DevelopTERMS & NAMESOverview• William the Conqueror• Henry II• Eleanor of Aquitaine• Magna Carta• parliament• Philip II• Louis IXMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWAs the kingdoms of England and France began to develop into nations, certain democratic traditions evolved.Modern concepts of jury trials, common law, and legal rights developed during this period.Assessment
15Parliament/Estates General HOME3England andFrance DevelopSection3Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Name each major step toward a democratic government and describe why it was important.Parliament/Estates GeneralMagna CartaIncluded commoners/middle class in making lawsCourtsGuaranteed basic rightsCentralized governmentLed to a unified body of law in England and an appeals court in FrancePolicies of English and French kings applied to allcontinued . . .
16England and France Develop 3 3 HOME3England andFrance DevelopSection3Assessment2. Contrast the way in which England and France began developing as nations. THINK ABOUT• the character of William, duke of Normandy, versus the character of Hugh Capet• the rise of the Normans to power in England• the rise of the Capetians to power in FranceANSWERPossible Response:William led an invasion of England in 1066 and granted fiefs to 200 Norman lords. Although Hugh Capet was a weak ruler, Capetians gradually consolidated their power.End of Section 3
17A Century of Turmoil Key Idea 4 HOME4A Centuryof TurmoilGRAPHKey IdeaChurch teachings are challenged, and the papacy loses prestige. The bubonic plague kills nearly one third of Europe’s population, and the Hundred Years’ War brings an end to the Middle Ages.OverviewAssessment
18A Century of Turmoil Overview 4 • Avignon • Great Schism HOME4A Centuryof TurmoilGRAPHTERMS & NAMESOverview• Avignon• Great Schism• John Wycliffe• Jan Hus• bubonic plague• Hundred Years’ War• Joan of ArcMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWDuring the 1300s, Europe was torn apart by religious strife, the bubonic plague, and the Hundred Years’ War.Events of the 1300s led to a change in attitudes toward religion and the state, a change reflected in modern attitudes.Assessment
19HOME4A Centuryof TurmoilGRAPHSection4Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Identify the main cause and the long-term effect of the three events listed below.Main CauseLong-Term EffectSplit in ChurchBubonic PlagueHundred Years’ WarChoice of Urban VI as popePope’s authority underminedSocial destruction and pessimismFleas carried diseaseEngland’s King Edward III claims French thronePromotes democratic institutionscontinued . . .
20HOME4A Centuryof TurmoilGRAPHSection4Assessment2. What problems did survivors face after the bubonic plague swept through their town? THINK ABOUT• the number of dead• the social, political, and economic chaosANSWERPossible Responses:Survivors had to bury the dead, provide for other survivors, replace town leaders and skilled workers, and try to rebuild their world.continued . . .
21HOME4A Centuryof TurmoilGRAPHSection4Assessment3. Do you think John Wycliffe and Jan Hus posed a real threat to the Church? Why or why not? THINK ABOUT• the two men’s ideas• the condition of the Church at the timeANSWERPossible Responses:Yes. Their ideas undermined the authority of the pope and the Church.No. Their criticism of worldly, wealthy clergy and their call for a return to the authority of the Bible reflected sound Christian beliefs.End of Section 4