Presentation on theme: "The Formation of Western Europe, 800–1500 QUIT Chapter Overview Time Line Visual Summary SECTION Church Reform and the Crusades 1 SECTION Trade, Towns,"— Presentation transcript:
The Formation of Western Europe, 800–1500 QUIT Chapter Overview Time Line Visual Summary SECTION Church Reform and the Crusades 1 SECTION Trade, Towns, and Financial Revolution 2 SECTION England and France Develop 3 SECTION A Century of Turmoil 4 14 CHAPTER MAP GRAPH
HOME Chapter Overview The Church is revitalized but its Crusades fail to capture Jerusalem. Rising prosperity and trade create thriving towns. France and England develop more representative government. Bubonic plague and the Hundred Years War bring an end to the Middle Ages. 14 CHAPTER The Formation of Western Europe, 800–1500
910 Benedictine Abbey founded at Cluny, France. 987 Capetian dynasty begins in France Norman invasion of England. 14 CHAPTER Time Line HOME The Formation of Western Europe, 800– Hundred Years War ends with French victory Bubonic plague strikes Europe First Crusade begins King John approves Magna Carta.
A spiritual revival leads to Church reform, new religious orders, and the building of Gothic cathedrals. The Crusades, though unsuccessful, strengthen European monarchies and increase trade with the Middle East. Overview Assessment Key Idea Church Reform and the Crusades 1 HOME
MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW The Catholic Church underwent reform and launched Crusades (religious wars) against Muslims and others. The Crusades resulted in trade and exploration between Christians and Muslims but left a legacy of distrust. Overview Church Reform and the Crusades 1 Assessment simony St. Francis of Assisi Gothic Urban II Crusade Saladin Richard the Lion- Hearted Reconquista Inquisition TERMS & NAMES HOME
1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List six key events that summarize the Age of Faith. Church Reform and the Crusades 1 Section 1 Assessment continued... HOME Benedictine monastery founded at Cluny. 1090s Pope calls for the First Crusade Jerusalem is captured by Christians Jerusalem falls to Saladin Christian knights loot Constantinople Reconquista ends in Spain.
2. Which of the Churchs problemsmarriage of priests, simony, lay investituredo you think was most harmful to the Church? Why? THINK ABOUT Section Church Reform and the Crusades 1 1 Assessment the effects of each problem the reforms that corrected each problem ANSWER Priests marriages undermined the authority of the Church. Simony rewarded wealth, not merit. Lay investiture made bishops the pawns of kings. Possible Responses: HOME End of Section 1
New farming methods and a growing food supply lead to expansion of trade and finance and the growth of towns. Interest in learning is revived as universities are established and ancient works are rediscovered. Overview Assessment Key Idea Trade, Towns, and Financial Revolution 2 HOME MAP
Trade, Towns, and Financial Revolution 2 European cities challenged the feudal system as agriculture, trade, finance, and universities developed. The various changes in the Middle Ages laid the foundations for modern Europe. Overview Assessment three-field system guild burgher vernacular Dante Alighieri Geoffrey Chaucer Thomas Aquinas scholastics MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME MAP
Trade, Towns, and Financial Revolution 2 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Describe how medieval society changed between 1000 and Section 2 Assessment continued... HOME Changes in Medieval Society Agriculture improves Population increases Towns grow Trade expands Universities arise MAP
Trade, Towns, and Financial Revolution 2 2. What was the effect of towns on the feudal system? THINK ABOUT Section 2 Assessment where the new townsfolk came from the saying Town air makes you free the changes experienced by townspeople ANSWER continued... HOME Towns undermined the feudal system by offering former serfs and new town dwellers economic and social opportunities. These burghers worked together to secure their freedom from lords. Possible Response: MAP
Section Trade, Towns, and Financial Revolution 2 2 Assessment ANSWER Guilds set standards for quality, weights, measures, and prices for their goods, such as a loaf of bread. An individual had to master a craft before becoming a guild member. Possible Responses: HOME End of Section 2 3. How did guilds improve the quality of goods and business practices? THINK ABOUT who enforced standards of quality who could become guild members MAP
England, united under the Normans, and France, united by the Capetian dynasty, take the first steps toward representative government. King John is forced to sign the Magna Carta, and Philip IV includes commoners in the council. Overview Assessment Key Idea England and France Develop 3 HOME
As the kingdoms of England and France began to develop into nations, certain democratic traditions evolved. Modern concepts of jury trials, common law, and legal rights developed during this period. Overview Assessment William the Conqueror Henry II Eleanor of Aquitaine Magna Carta parliament Philip II Louis IX England and France Develop 3 MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME
England and France Develop 3 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Name each major step toward a democratic government and describe why it was important. Section 3 Assessment continued... HOME Centralized government Policies of English and French kings applied to all Courts Led to a unified body of law in England and an appeals court in France Magna Carta Guaranteed basic rights Parliament/Estates General Included commoners/middle class in making laws
England and France Develop 3 Section 3 Assessment ANSWER William led an invasion of England in 1066 and granted fiefs to 200 Norman lords. Although Hugh Capet was a weak ruler, Capetians gradually consolidated their power. Possible Response: 2. Contrast the way in which England and France began developing as nations. THINK ABOUT the character of William, duke of Normandy, versus the character of Hugh Capet the rise of the Normans to power in England the rise of the Capetians to power in France HOME End of Section 3
Church teachings are challenged, and the papacy loses prestige. The bubonic plague kills nearly one third of Europes population, and the Hundred Years War brings an end to the Middle Ages. Overview Assessment Key Idea A Century of Turmoil 4 HOME GRAPH
During the 1300s, Europe was torn apart by religious strife, the bubonic plague, and the Hundred Years War. Events of the 1300s led to a change in attitudes toward religion and the state, a change reflected in modern attitudes. Overview Assessment Avignon Great Schism John Wycliffe Jan Hus bubonic plague Hundred Years War Joan of Arc A Century of Turmoil 4 MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME GRAPH
1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Identify the main cause and the long-term effect of the three events listed below. A Century of Turmoil 4 continued... Section 4 Assessment HOME GRAPH Main Cause Long-Term Effect Split in Church Bubonic Plague Hundred Years War Choice of Urban VI as popePopes authority undermined Fleas carried disease Social destruction and pessimism Englands King Edward III claims French throne Promotes democratic institutions
Section 4 Assessment ANSWER 2. What problems did survivors face after the bubonic plague swept through their town? THINK ABOUT the number of dead A Century of Turmoil 4 the social, political, and economic chaos Survivors had to bury the dead, provide for other survivors, replace town leaders and skilled workers, and try to rebuild their world. Possible Responses: HOME GRAPH continued...
Section 4 Assessment ANSWER 3. Do you think John Wycliffe and Jan Hus posed a real threat to the Church? Why or why not? THINK ABOUT the two mens ideas A Century of Turmoil 4 the condition of the Church at the time Yes. Their ideas undermined the authority of the pope and the Church. No. Their criticism of worldly, wealthy clergy and their call for a return to the authority of the Bible reflected sound Christian beliefs. Possible Responses: HOME GRAPH End of Section 4