Presentation on theme: "England and France Develop Main Idea: As the kingdoms of England and France began to develop into nations, certain democratic traditions evolved."— Presentation transcript:
England and France Develop Main Idea: As the kingdoms of England and France began to develop into nations, certain democratic traditions evolved.
Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms By the early 800’s, small Anglo-Saxon kingdoms covered the former Roman province. The Anglo-Saxons were a result of years of invaders from Denmark and Germany. England or “Angles” were a result of German tribes. England absorbs waves of Invaders; cultural diffusion
The Norman Conquest Normandy was a land in Northern France that had been invaded by Vikings. In 1066 King Edward of England dies without an heir. His cousin, William the Conqueror from Normandy claims the English crown and invades England. On October 14, 1066, The Battle of Hastings is a battle between the Normans and Saxons over control of England. Victory belongs to William and he claims all of England as his own personal property. He grants fiefs to 200 Norman lords and sets foundations for a centralized government. Invasion of England The Normans Centralized Government is created
Monarch, Nobles & Common Law Henry II Eleanor of Aquitaine English King Marries French Queen This brings lots of land Eleanor marries twice: Louis VII of France and Henry Plantagenet of England Henry and Eleanor have four sons including two kings of England: John and Richard (the lion-hearted) Henry is a good ruler and introduced many concepts: Royal judges collect taxes, settle land suits and punish crimes Introduces the use of a jury system Facilitates Common Law Rulings become basis of common law which become basis for law in many English-speaking countries, including the United States
The Good and The Bad King Henry is succeeded by Richard (the Crusades guy) When Richard dies, John rules from 1199-1216 John loses all lands in France and fails as a military leader John was a mean king and is always trying to squeeze the lords for more “juice.” After trying to raise taxes to finance his wars, the lords revolt. On June 15, 1215, the lords force John to agree to the most celebrated document in English history: The Magna Carta Nobles want to safeguard their own interest and limit the power of the king.
The Magna Carta (1215) The Magna Carta guaranteed certain basic political rights to the Lords only (at first). Its main purpose was to safeguard lords’ feudal rights and limit the king’s powers In time it allows English people of all classes to argue that it applies to every citizen Guaranteed rights included: No taxation without representation A jury trial The protection of the law The Magna Cart is the basis of what are now considered basic legal rights both in England and the United States
The Model Parliament In order to hang on to the last remaining lands in France, King Edward I summons two burgesses from every borough and two knights from every county to serve on Parliament in order to raise taxes for the military campaign. This is called the Model Parliament because it represented a new model for later kings (commoners and lords) Eventually the two groups form what is now known as the House of Commons and the House of Lords This system under King Edward I eventually weakens the power of the Lords Over time Parliament becomes strong and limits the power of the king. It also is a basis of checks and balances on power
Capetian Rule in France Hugh Capet becomes monarch in 987 Feudal lords are not threatened by his rule Hugh and his heirs (Capetians) slowly increase their power. He does this by: Making the throne hereditary Playing nobles against one another Developing a system of tax collection Capetians rule France from 987 to 1328 Paris becomes pivotal as the center of power France develops as a separate kingdom and eventually becomes a nation.
Phillip II – Powerful Capetian Most powerful of Hugh’s heirs was Philip II or Philip Augustus Main goal: to recover lands lost to England Philip was a crafty, unprincipled and willing-to- do anything-necessary-to-accomplish-his-goal leader He is successful against King John of England earning the name “Augustus” (Latin for majestic) Recovering land from England, he triples the land holding and for the first time becomes the most powerful French king over his vassals In addition to the power he establishes a stronger central government. Creates the post of bailiff, a royal official that travels throughout the kingdom enforcing the king’s court and tax collection system
Capetian Heirs Takes on the control of the Catholic church in France Demanded that the church priests pay taxes and the Pope refuses Seeks to expand the support of his decisions by including commoners in his court meetings Expands the Estates-General to include a third estate First Estate – The church leaders Second Estate – Lords and Nobles Third Estate – Commoners that mainly included artisans, tradesman, merchants. Eventually become known as the Bourgeoisie. This group centuries later help overthrow the French Monarch in the French Revolution. Unlike Parliament the Estates-General never become independent power to limit the king. However, the Third Estate is a key player in overthrowing the throne during the French Revolution
State of Turmoil In the 14 th century there is much turmoil. This includes: Religious disputes: King Phillip v. Pope Boniface VIII Avignon and the Great Schism John Wycliffe – Who is in charge: Jesus/Bible v. Pope Plague – Bubonic Plague (book) Product of the Crusades 25 million die Fuels anti-Semitism Impacts Feudalism Impacts Church War – Hundred Years War France gains prestige English Parliament strengthened End of Feudalism In the end religion devotion and the code of chivalry crumble with the end of the Hundred Years War. The Great Schism, display of wealth by church, the bubonic plague and the Hundred Years War.
Decides who can build castles Forces vassals to obey them Establish common law Collects records of who owns land Make throne hereditary Become allies w/ the church Organize army Take French lands from English Kings Kings of England Kings of France Add to their lands Set up organized govt. Collect taxes Create a royal treasury Set up royal courts and royal law
What did we learn? How does religion change? What changes in the state?