Presentation on theme: "Types of Energy Elements & Atoms Organic & Inorganic Molecules."— Presentation transcript:
Types of Energy Elements & Atoms Organic & Inorganic Molecules
Kinetic Vs. Potential Energy Energy is your ability to do work or move matter. Kinetic: Energy in motion. Potential: Stored energy.
Physical Vs. Chemical Change Physical Change: Change that does not affect the chemical composition of the substance. Can be changed back Ex. Dying hair, Tattoo body, etc. Chemical Change: Change that DOES affect the chemical composition of a substance. Change is permanent Ex. Chewing food, Oxidation
Forms of Energy Chemical: Stored in bonds Ex.: Break down food Mechanical: Movement of matter Ex.: Muscles moving bones Electrical: Movement of charged particles Ex.: Nerve Impulses Radiant: Travels in waves Ex.: UV light
Elements & Atoms Everything is made of atoms Nucleus is the center of an atom Contains positive protons & neutral neutrons Negative electrons orbit the nucleus Determine bonding properties Atoms are NEUTRAL because they have the same number of Protons & Electrons The nucleus is positive!
Ions Ions are atoms that have gained or lost an electron. Ions of Sodium & Potassium are important for the firing of nerve impulses. Ions determine if a substance is an acid or base. H+ ions= AcidOH- ions= Base
pH in the Body Blood pH: The blood is slightly basic with a pH of 7.4 A diabetic coma can occur if the blood pH varies too far from 7.4 Too acidic : Acidosis Too basic: Ketosis
Organic Compounds Organic Compounds: Large & Contain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen Carbohydrates: Provide the body with quick energy! Monosaccharides & Disaccharides: Sweet, simple sugars (Glucose, Fructose, Lactose) Polysaccharides: Complex, nonsweet sugars (Glycogen & Starch)
Organic Compounds Lipids: Serve as energy storage and insulate the body. Ex.: Fats, Phosphlipids, Steroids Insoluble in water Made of Glycerol & Fatty Acids; Capital letter E Saturated Fats: Solid at room temp (Lard) Unsaturated Fats: Liquid at room temp (Oil)
Lipids Cont’d… Phospholipids: Make up the cell membrane and abundant in the liver. Steroids: Natural Steroids: Found in all cells and make other steroids. Ex.: Cholesterol, Bile Acids, Sex hormones, & Vitamin D. Anabolic Steroids: Used by athletes to build muscle mass. Have very serious side effects!!
Organic Compounds Proteins: Serve as structural components for cells and tissues. Made up of amino acids. End in –in (Keratin, Hemoglobin) Enzymes are examples of proteins. Speed up the rate of a chemical reaction.
Organic Compounds Nucleic Acids: Instructions/codes that tell the body how to complete a function. Genes DNA & RNA Found in all living/once living things. Made up of nucleotides:
Inorganic Compounds All others are inorganic: Water is the most abundant & important INORGANIC molecule. Water makes up roughly 75% of the human body! Water has a high heat capacity (distribute heat) Water has a high heat of vaporization (helps with cooling the body). Water is important for transport in the body and is the universal solvent. Water serves to cushion the body (cerebrospinal fluid).
Inorganic Compounds Salts are inorganic electrolytes, which are conductors of electric currents in the body. Salts of Sodium & Potassium are important for conduction of nerve impulses in the body. Salts of Calcium & Phosphorus are important for bones.