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Types of Energy Elements & Atoms Organic & Inorganic Molecules.

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Presentation on theme: "Types of Energy Elements & Atoms Organic & Inorganic Molecules."— Presentation transcript:

1 Types of Energy Elements & Atoms Organic & Inorganic Molecules

2 Kinetic Vs. Potential Energy  Energy is your ability to do work or move matter.  Kinetic: Energy in motion.  Potential: Stored energy.

3 Physical Vs. Chemical Change  Physical Change: Change that does not affect the chemical composition of the substance.  Can be changed back  Ex. Dying hair, Tattoo body, etc.  Chemical Change: Change that DOES affect the chemical composition of a substance.  Change is permanent  Ex. Chewing food, Oxidation

4 Forms of Energy  Chemical: Stored in bonds  Ex.: Break down food  Mechanical: Movement of matter  Ex.: Muscles moving bones  Electrical: Movement of charged particles  Ex.: Nerve Impulses  Radiant: Travels in waves  Ex.: UV light

5 Elements & Atoms  Everything is made of atoms  Nucleus is the center of an atom  Contains positive protons & neutral neutrons  Negative electrons orbit the nucleus  Determine bonding properties  Atoms are NEUTRAL because they have the same number of Protons & Electrons  The nucleus is positive!

6 Ions  Ions are atoms that have gained or lost an electron.  Ions of Sodium & Potassium are important for the firing of nerve impulses.  Ions determine if a substance is an acid or base.  H+ ions= AcidOH- ions= Base

7 pH in the Body  Blood pH: The blood is slightly basic with a pH of 7.4  A diabetic coma can occur if the blood pH varies too far from 7.4  Too acidic : Acidosis  Too basic: Ketosis

8 Organic Compounds  Organic Compounds: Large & Contain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen  Carbohydrates: Provide the body with quick energy!  Monosaccharides & Disaccharides: Sweet, simple sugars (Glucose, Fructose, Lactose)  Polysaccharides: Complex, nonsweet sugars (Glycogen & Starch)

9 Organic Compounds  Lipids: Serve as energy storage and insulate the body.  Ex.: Fats, Phosphlipids, Steroids  Insoluble in water  Made of Glycerol & Fatty Acids; Capital letter E  Saturated Fats: Solid at room temp (Lard)  Unsaturated Fats: Liquid at room temp (Oil)

10 Lipids Cont’d…  Phospholipids: Make up the cell membrane and abundant in the liver.  Steroids:  Natural Steroids: Found in all cells and make other steroids. Ex.: Cholesterol, Bile Acids, Sex hormones, & Vitamin D.  Anabolic Steroids: Used by athletes to build muscle mass. Have very serious side effects!!

11 Organic Compounds  Proteins: Serve as structural components for cells and tissues.  Made up of amino acids.  End in –in (Keratin, Hemoglobin)  Enzymes are examples of proteins.  Speed up the rate of a chemical reaction.

12 Organic Compounds  Nucleic Acids: Instructions/codes that tell the body how to complete a function.  Genes  DNA & RNA  Found in all living/once living things.  Made up of nucleotides:

13 Inorganic Compounds  All others are inorganic:  Water is the most abundant & important INORGANIC molecule.  Water makes up roughly 75% of the human body!  Water has a high heat capacity (distribute heat)  Water has a high heat of vaporization (helps with cooling the body).  Water is important for transport in the body and is the universal solvent.  Water serves to cushion the body (cerebrospinal fluid).

14 Inorganic Compounds  Salts are inorganic electrolytes, which are conductors of electric currents in the body.  Salts of Sodium & Potassium are important for conduction of nerve impulses in the body.  Salts of Calcium & Phosphorus are important for bones.

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