n Matter -- anything that has MASS and takes up SPACE n EVERYTHING is made of matter
Chemistry of Life n Atoms – the SMALLEST particle that can exist and still be considered matter n All LIVING and NONLIVING things are made of atoms
Atoms -- have three components n ELECTRONS -- negatively charged n PROTONS -- positively charged; found in nucleus n NEUTRONS -- neutral; found in nucleus
Electrons Nucleus Protons & Neutrons Energy Levels
Chemical Reactions n Chemical reactions occur when bonds are FORMED or BROKEN. n This causes them to recombine into different substances.
Chemical Reactions n Metabolism –All reactions that occur in an organisms. n These reactions break down and build molecules important to life.
Chemical Reactions n Mixture: –A combination of a substance in which the individual components contain their own property.
Chemistry of the Cell n Solution: –A mixture in which one or more substances are distributed evenly in another substance. Solvent: A substance that can dissolve other substances Solute: The substance that is dissolved
pH n Chemical reactions also depend on the pH of the environment within the organism. n pH- –A measure of how acidic or basic a solution is.
pH n The scale goes from 0-14 –0 being the most acidic –14 being the most basic
Chemistry of Life n Elements -- a substance that is made of only ONE kind of ATOM
Reading Periodic Table Element Atomic Number Symbol
Why is water so important to agriculture? n At least 75% of animal body mass is water n Plants contain 70-80% water n Transports nutrients and wastes
Why is water so important to agriculture? n Dissolves compounds -- “Universal Solvent” n Regulates body temperature in animals n Provides structure for plants
Organic Compounds n Organic Compounds contain carbon. n Carbon forms the structural backbone of all living things.
Carbohydrates n Organic Compounds that contain: –Carbon –Hydrogen –Oxygen n They provide energy
Carbohydrates n Three Types –Monosaccharides –Disaccharides –Polysaccharides
Carbohydrates n Monosaccharides –simple SUGAR –contain C 6 H 12 O 6 –GLUCOSE, FRUCTOSE, AND GALACTOSE
Carbohydrates n Disaccharides –double SUGAR –contain two RINGS –SUCROSE and LACTOSE
Carbohydrates n Polysaccharides –complex CARBOHYDRATES –made of RINGS of SUGAR –STARCH, CELLULOSE, and GLYCOGEN
Proteins n Basic building material for all living things. n Used for STRUCTURE and FUNCTION n Made of H, O, C, N
Structure of Proteins n Amino Acids – building BLOCKS –20 different kinds – all have the same elements but in different amounts n Polypeptides – chains of AMINO ACIDS Joined by peptide bonds n Proteins – chains of POLYPEPTIDES n Used to make SKIN, HAIR, MUSCLE, ORGANS, etc.
Lipids n FATTY molecules n used to store ENERGY n Made of long chains of H & C followed by COOH n Do not DISSOLVE in WATER n Lipids have less OXYGEN than carbohydrates n Examples of Lipids are: FATS, OILS, AND WAXES
Nucleic Acids n Store INFORMATION that controls CELL activities n Made of a PHOSPHATE a SUGAR, and a BASE.
Examples of Nucleic Acids are: n DNA : –Deoxyribonucleic Acid n The master copy of an organisms information code. n Instructions to form all of an organisms structural proteins
Examples of Nucleic Acids are: n RNA : –Ribonucleic Acid n This forms a copy of the DNA for use in making protein.