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Chemistry of Life. n Matter -- anything that has MASS and takes up SPACE n EVERYTHING is made of matter.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemistry of Life. n Matter -- anything that has MASS and takes up SPACE n EVERYTHING is made of matter."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemistry of Life

2 n Matter -- anything that has MASS and takes up SPACE n EVERYTHING is made of matter

3 Chemistry of Life n Atoms – the SMALLEST particle that can exist and still be considered matter n All LIVING and NONLIVING things are made of atoms

4 Atoms -- have three components n ELECTRONS -- negatively charged n PROTONS -- positively charged; found in nucleus n NEUTRONS -- neutral; found in nucleus

5 Electrons Nucleus Protons & Neutrons Energy Levels

6 Chemical Reactions n Chemical reactions occur when bonds are FORMED or BROKEN. n This causes them to recombine into different substances.

7 Chemical Reactions n Metabolism –All reactions that occur in an organisms. n These reactions break down and build molecules important to life.

8 Chemical Reactions n Mixture: –A combination of a substance in which the individual components contain their own property.

9 Chemistry of the Cell n Solution: –A mixture in which one or more substances are distributed evenly in another substance. Solvent: A substance that can dissolve other substances Solute: The substance that is dissolved

10 pH n Chemical reactions also depend on the pH of the environment within the organism. n pH- –A measure of how acidic or basic a solution is.

11 pH n The scale goes from 0-14 –0 being the most acidic –14 being the most basic

12 Chemistry of Life n Elements -- a substance that is made of only ONE kind of ATOM

13 Reading Periodic Table Element Atomic Number Symbol

14 The Human Body

15 Major Elements of Life n C = Carbon n H = Hydrogen n O = Oxygen n P = Phosphorus n K = Potassium

16 Major Elements of Life n I = Iodine n N = Nitrogen n S = Sulfur n Ca = Calcium

17 Major Elements of Life n Fe = Iron n Mg = Magnesium n Na = Sodium n Cl = Chlorine

18 Chemistry of Life n Compounds – matter that is made of more than one kind of ATOM n Compounds are made by atoms sharing or taking ELECTRONS from other atom

19 Inorganic Compounds n Water ( H 2 O ) n Each molecule is made of two HYDROGEN atoms and one OXYGEN atom

20 Water –H 2 0

21 Why is water so important to agriculture? n At least 75% of animal body mass is water n Plants contain 70-80% water n Transports nutrients and wastes

22 Why is water so important to agriculture? n Dissolves compounds -- “Universal Solvent” n Regulates body temperature in animals n Provides structure for plants

23 Organic Compounds n Organic Compounds contain carbon. n Carbon forms the structural backbone of all living things.

24 Carbohydrates n Organic Compounds that contain: –Carbon –Hydrogen –Oxygen n They provide energy

25 Carbohydrates n Three Types –Monosaccharides –Disaccharides –Polysaccharides

26 Carbohydrates n Monosaccharides –simple SUGAR –contain C 6 H 12 O 6 –GLUCOSE, FRUCTOSE, AND GALACTOSE

27 Carbohydrates n Disaccharides –double SUGAR –contain two RINGS –SUCROSE and LACTOSE

28 Carbohydrates n Polysaccharides –complex CARBOHYDRATES –made of RINGS of SUGAR –STARCH, CELLULOSE, and GLYCOGEN

29 Proteins n Basic building material for all living things. n Used for STRUCTURE and FUNCTION n Made of H, O, C, N

30 Structure of Proteins n Amino Acids – building BLOCKS –20 different kinds – all have the same elements but in different amounts n Polypeptides – chains of AMINO ACIDS Joined by peptide bonds n Proteins – chains of POLYPEPTIDES n Used to make SKIN, HAIR, MUSCLE, ORGANS, etc.

31 Lipids n FATTY molecules n used to store ENERGY n Made of long chains of H & C followed by COOH n Do not DISSOLVE in WATER n Lipids have less OXYGEN than carbohydrates n Examples of Lipids are: FATS, OILS, AND WAXES

32 Nucleic Acids n Store INFORMATION that controls CELL activities n Made of a PHOSPHATE a SUGAR, and a BASE.

33 Examples of Nucleic Acids are: n DNA : –Deoxyribonucleic Acid n The master copy of an organisms information code. n Instructions to form all of an organisms structural proteins

34 Examples of Nucleic Acids are: n RNA : –Ribonucleic Acid n This forms a copy of the DNA for use in making protein.

35 Atoms are the building block of life!

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