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CHEMISTRY OF LIVING THINGS ICBS 130 Chapter 2 Body Structures.

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Presentation on theme: "CHEMISTRY OF LIVING THINGS ICBS 130 Chapter 2 Body Structures."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHEMISTRY OF LIVING THINGS ICBS 130 Chapter 2 Body Structures

2 CHEMISTRY Study of the structure of matter.  Composition of substances Their properties Chemical reactions Biochemistry  Study of chemical reactions of living things

3 Matter and Energy Matter solidsliquidsgases Matter is anything that has a weight (mass) and occupies space like us!

4 MATTER Matter can not be destroyed or created.  Can change form though Gas into liquid, solid into liquid, liquid into gas

5 Energy Ability to do work or put matter into motion

6 Body Energy Potential energy  Stored energy in the cells  Waiting to be used Kinetic Energy  Results in motion/movement Potential energy, is energy at rest

7 ATOMS Smallest piece of an element Made up of subatomic particles  Protons Positive charge and is one component of a nucleus  Neutrons No charge and is the 2 nd component of a nucleus  Electrons Negative charge and are arranged around the nucleus


9 Atom How the atom is arranged at the subatomic level tells us what type of atom it is.  Such as the difference between oxygen and carbon

10 Elements Are alike atoms (same type) that have formed together  So if you have a single substance such as calcium, this would be an atom.  If the like substance is grouped together, it is an element. elements atom

11 Compounds Are different types of elements combined together. The elements may change form when added together. Table salt Na (sodium) + Cl (chlorine) Compounds that are put together use a “formula”

12 Common elements and compounds

13 Molecules Is the smallest part of a compound that still acts like a compound. So if you take an earthworm (compound) and cut it up into small pieces (molecule), it’s still an earthworm as it will still move about and grow. Or take a cup of water and a teaspoon of water. It’s still water but in a smaller size.

14 Ions Chemical bonds formed by electrons.  If atom Red gives up an electron to another atom to form a bond, the Red atom will now have a positive charge.  If Yellow atom takes the extra electron and forms a bond, the Yellow atom will now have a negative charge.

15 Electrolytes When compounds are in a solution and have broken down to ions.  Helps break down materials to be altered and helps form new substances or compounds.  Responsible for the + and – charges within tissue.

16 Organic Compounds Found in all living things Always contain carbon Can combine with other elements to form a large number of organic compounds. 4 Major Groups  Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

17 Carbohydrates Divided into 3 groups  Monosaccharides (1 sugar or simple) Glucose (glycogen), fructose (fruit)  Disaccharides (2 or double sugar) Sucrose (table sugar), maltose (malt sugar), and lactose (milk sugar) Have to be broken down into monosaccharides before the body can digest it.

18 Carbohydrates con’t…  Polysaccharides (large/complex sugar) Starch (potatoes), cellulose (plant tissue), and glycogen. Must be broken down into disaccharides and then monosaccharides before it can be digested.

19 Lipids Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.  Fats Contain glycerol and fatty acids.  AKA triglycerides, very abundant in the body  Phospholipids Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus  Found in the brain, nervous tissue, and cell membranes.

20 Lipids con’t…  Steroids Contain cholesterol  Essential to the cell membrane  Manufactures vitamin D  Production of male and female hormones  Helps make cortisol  Can accumulate in the arteries  Found in meat, eggs, and cheese  Liver manufactures cholesterol

21 Proteins Organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.  Some contain phosphorus and sulfur. Found in all living things and every part of a cell. Viruses have outer coats made of proteins

22 Proteins con’t… Binding and structural capacity as in fingernails, hair, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, and muscles.  Small molecular units of proteins are called Amino Acids. Proteins are complicated.

23 Enzymes Found in all living cells Have a specialized function;  Help control various chemical reactions within the cell.  Help provide energy  Help make new cell parts  AKA organic catalyst

24 Nucleic Acids Organic compound Largest known organic molecule Known as DNA and RNA

25 DNA Process of heredity Double stranded 46 chromosomes Chromosomes contain about 100,000 genes. Genetic information tells a cell what it will become or function as. Passes the information from one generation to the next.

26 RNA Single stranded 3 Different types  m-RNA Messenger RNA, carries instructions for protein synthesis  t-RNA Transfer RNA, picks up amino acids in the cytoplasm and transfers them to the ribosomes to form proteins.  r-RNA Ribosomal RNA, helps in the attachment of the m-RNA to the ribosome. 

27 Acids Sour taste Substance that ends up with + ions Turn test paper (litmus) red  Hydrochloric acid – found in stomach  Acetic acid – found in vinegar  Sulfuric acid – found in batteries

28 Bases Alkali substance In water, changes to + charged ions Bitter taste Slippery Turn test paper blue  Milk of magnesia  Household liquid cleaners

29 Neutralization and salts When an acid and base are mixed together it forms salt and water.  Reaction to the combination is called Neutralization.

30 PH Scale Used to measure the alkalinity or acidity of a solution.

31 Homeostasis A state in which the body functions properly. Maintaining a proper ph level in the body.

32 Homeostasis con’t… Intracellular:  Fluid within a cell Extracellular  Fluid surrounding the cell With proper maintenance homeostasis exist in the body all the way to the cellular level allowing exchanges to take place in and out of the cell.

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