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Basic Chemistry Chapter 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Basic Chemistry Chapter 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Basic Chemistry Chapter 2

2 MATTER & ENERGY Matter Anything that occupies space and can be weighed
Chemistry examines the nature of matter Energy No mass Ability to do work Matter is the substance that is moved by energy

3 Matter Building blocks: solid, liquid, gas
Physical change –nature of substance is unchanged Chemical change –nature of substance is changed

4 ENERGY No mass We measure the effect of energy on matter
Two types: Kinetic and Potential

5 ENERGY Forms: Chemical -stored within bonds, released as heat
Electrical -movement of charged partials (e-) Mechanical -direct movement of matter Radiant -electromagnetic waves Energy is converted from one form to another, any not used is released as heat.

6 COMPOSITION OF MATTER Elements Atoms Opposites attract!
Protons (p+) –positive charge Neutrons(n0) –neutral or no charge Electrons (e-) –negative charge Opposites attract!


8 ATOMS Orbital Model –electron cloud Atomic number –number of protons
Atomic mass –sum of all protons and neutrons Isotopes –vary in number of neutrons Radioisotopes –radioactivity, heavy isotopes

Molecules, Compounds, Reactions, OH MY! Molecules =same Compounds =different Reactions =associations or dissociations of atoms Bonds form between molecules and compounds Energy relationships

10 CHEMICAL BONDS Bonds are energy relationships
Opposites attract while “like” or same repels Role of electrons Occupy fixed regions called electron shells or energy levels Valence shell electrons participate in bonds


12 ENERGY LEVELS Valence Shells (energy levels) Outer shell
If fewer than 8 electrons will try to: share, gain, lose


14 CHEMICAL BONDS Ionic –one atom gains electron and second loses
Covalent –electrons are shared between atoms Hydrogen –form bridge between two electrically negative atoms

15 CHEMICAL REACTIONS Synthesis –larger molecule formed
Decomposition –larger molecule is degraded Exchange –synthesis and decomposition; switch

16 BIOCHEMISTRY Inorganic compounds do not contain carbon atoms
Water, salts (electrolytes), acids and bases Organic compounds contain carbon atoms Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids

17 INORGANIC COMPOUNDS Water –thermoregulatory, universal solvent, reactivity, cushioning, lubrication Salts –cations other than H+, electrolytes Acids –H+, proton donors Bases –OH-, proton acceptors pH –concentration of acid; [protons] pH 7 =1 x 10-7 pH2 =1 x 10-2 pH12 =1 x 10-12

18 pH 7 =1 x 10-7= pH6 =1 x 10-6 = pH1 =1 x 10-1 =0.1 pH14 =1 x =

19 ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Large, complex molecules
Functional groups are reactive parts Monomers combine to form polymers Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids, ATP

20 CARBOHYDRATES “Hydrated Carbon” Monosaccharides are building blocks
Disaccharides –double sugars Polysaccharides –branching chains

21 LIPIDS More carbon & hydrogen than oxygen Insoluble in water
Saturated or unsaturated Triglycerides –fatty acids + glycerol Phospholipids –contain phosphorus Steroids –flat with interlocking rings


23 PROTEINS Amino acids are building blocks
Amine + acid group + functional group (R) Most are complex in structure Tertiary Primary Secondary

24 PROTEINS Fibrous or Globular Function depends on shape
Enzymes (end in –ase)

25 NUCLEIC ACIDS Building blocks are nucleotides Code for genes
5 types: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thyamine, uracil Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) & Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

Chemical energy Adenine base + ribose sugar + 3 phosphates Phosphate bonds are high energy

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