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Guided Notes for Basic Chemistry

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1 Guided Notes for Basic Chemistry
Chapter 2

2 Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass
Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. Matter exists in solid, liquid, and gaseous states.

3 3 Types of Matter in the Body
Solids: bones, teeth Liquids: blood, plasma Gases: air

4 3. Energy is commonly defined as the ability to do work or to put matter into motion.

5 4. Chemical energy is stored in the bonds of chemical substances
4. Chemical energy is stored in the bonds of chemical substances. When the bonds are broken, it becomes kinetic energy.

6 5. Electrical energy results from the movement of charged particles.

7 6. Mechanical energy is directly involved in moving matter
6. Mechanical energy is directly involved in moving matter. Radiant energy travels in waves, that is, energy of the electromagnetic spectrum.

8 7. Four elements, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, make up about 96 percent of body weight.

9 8. Isotopes are atoms that exhibit two or more structural variations
8. Isotopes are atoms that exhibit two or more structural variations. Isotopes have the same number of protons and electrons, but vary in the number of neutrons.

10 9. Radioisotopes are the heavier isotopes of certain atoms, which are unstable and tend to decompose to become more stable. Radioisotopes are used in minute amounts to tag biological molecules so that they can be followed, or traced, through the body.

11 10. A water molecule is formed when two hydrogen atoms bind covalently to one oxygen atom.

12 11. Synthesis reactions occur when 2 or more atoms or molecules combine to form a larger, more complex molecule.

13 12. Decomposition reactions occur when a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules. Examples of decomposition reactions that occur in the body include the digestion of foods and the breakdown of glycogen.

14 13. During exchange reactions, a switch is made between molecule parts and different molecules are made. An exchange reaction occurs when ATP reacts with glucose.

15 Difference between organic and inorganic compounds
Organic Compounds contain carbon Inorganic Compounds do not contain carbon (except for carbon dioxide)

16 15. When dissolved in body fluids, salts, which are ionic compounds, easily separate into their ions.

17 16. Because ions are charged particles, all salts are electrolytes, which are substances that conduct an electrical current in solution. When electrolyte balance is severely disturbed, virtually nothing in the body works.

18 17. Living cells are extraordinarily sensitive to changes in pH, and the acid-base balance is carefully regulated by the kidneys, lungs, and chemicals called buffers.

19 Carbohydrates, which include sugars and starches, contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrates are classified according to size as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides.

20 The 3 Types of Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides: glucose Disaccharides: sucrose, lactose Polysaccharides: starch, glycogen

21 20. The most abundant lipids in the body are neutral fats, phospholipids, and steroids. All lipids contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Most lipids are insoluble in water.

22 21. The single most important steroid molecule is cholesterol, which enters the body in animal products such as meat, eggs, and cheese.

23 22. Proteins account for over 50 percent of the organic matter in the body, and they have the most varied functions of organic molecules.

24 23. The building blocks of proteins are small molecules called amino acids.

25 24. Based on their overall shape and structure, proteins are classified as either fibrous or globular.

26 Fibrous Proteins Fibrous proteins are strand-like and bind structures together Examples include keratin and collagen

27 Globular Proteins Globular proteins are mobile, generally spherical molecules that play crucial roles in biological processes Examples include antibodies, hormones, and enzymes

28 27. ATP is all-important because it provides a form of chemical energy used by all body cells. Without ATP, molecules cannot be made or broken down, cells can’t maintain boundaries, and life processes stop.

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