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Chemistry In Anatomy.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemistry In Anatomy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemistry In Anatomy

2 Atoms, Elements, and Compounds

3 Matter All living things are made of matter
Matter has mass and takes up space Atoms are the building blocks of matter

4 What do we call different types of atoms?
Elements A substance that can’t be broken down into simpler chemical substances

5 The Structure of the Atom
Nucleus Protons and Neutrons Electron Clouds or orbitals Electrons

6 The Nucleus The Atomic Number of an atom = the number of protons
The Atomic Mass =The number of protons + the number of neutrons

7 The Periodic Table Atomic Mass Organizes all of the known elements
Atomic Number Oxygen 8 Atomic Mass 15.999

8 The major element’s of living organisms
Page 31 in your book C, H, O, N make up 90% of the human body.

9 How are atoms structured?
Nucleus = protons and neutrons. Orbitals/electron cloud = electrons The number of protons = the atomic number The number or electrons = the atomic number.

10 Compounds Elements can combine to form compounds
A pure substance made of 2 or more different elements combined Examples: Water = H2O Carbon dioxide = CO2 Glucose = C6H12O6

11 Acids, Bases, and pH acid—a substance that donates hydrogen ions, H+, to form hydronium ions, H3O+, when dissolved in water. -taste sour -turn blue litmus paper red -corrode metal -conduct electricity when dissolved in water

12 Bases a substance that either contains hydroxide
ions, OH-, or reacts with water to form hydroxide ions. -bitter taste -slippery -conduct electricity -turns red litmus paper blue -very dangerous if not dilute

13 Measuring acids and bases
pH—a measure of the hydronium ion concentration in a solution enzymes in your body work in a narrow pH range an abnormal pH is a sign of health problems

14 pH Values range from 0-14 -neutral solutions are 7 -acids 0-7
-bases 7-14

15 The Building Blocks of Life

16 Basic Biochemistry Terminology
Monomer = single unit which makes up a larger molecule Polymer = Long chain of repeating monomers

17 The Four Macromolecules
Carbohydrates Lipids Nucleic Acids Proteins

18 Carbohydrates Monomer = monosaccharide (glucose)
Polymer = polysaccharide Quick energy source for production of ATP Source = breads, pasta, sweets. Complex or Simple

19 Carbohydrates Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
1:2:1 ratio of elements Carbohydrates are sugars Used for Energy Cellulose – Plant walls Chitin – Insect shells, fungus bodies 1. Monosaccharide – fructose & glucose 2. Disaccharide – two monosaccahrides bonded – sucrose 3. Polysaccharide – many monosaccahrides bonded – starch, glycogen, cellulose

20 Lipids Monomer = triglyceride Polymer = steroid, phospholipid
Lipids used for long term energy storage Steroids = chemical messenger Phospholipid =cell membrane

21 Lipids Composed of Carbon and hydrogen Waxes, Fats and oils
Nonpolar - Insoluble in water Used for energy storage, insulation, and protective coverings Major component of membranes surrounding cells called a phospholipid Steroids – cholesterol and hormones

22 Nucleic Acids Complex macromolecule that stores cellular information in the form of a code. Composed of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and hydrogen Polymer made of smaller units called nucleotides Nucleotides contain a nitrogen base, a sugar, and a phosphate group 2 types DNA – Deoxyribonucleic Acid RNA – Ribonucleic Acid

23 Proteins Monomer = amino acids Polymer = polypeptide
Main component of most tissues and cells in the body Source = meats, dairy, peanuts, soy

24 Proteins Essential to all life – the primary building block of life
Large complex polymer composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually sulfur Amino Acids are the building blocks 20 common amino acids 2nd major component of cell membranes

25 Reactions between biomolecules
Synthesis reaction – formation of bond between monomers stores energy (ie. Dehydration synthesis) Decomposition reaction – breaking of bond releases stored energy (ie. Hydrolysis)

26 Types of energy Kinetic – energy of motion
Potential – energy which is stored/has not yet been applied In the body, potential energy is stored as glucose molecule Kinetic energy is when that glucose molecule is used to form ATP, and perform work in the cell

27 Calories/Kilocalories
Measure of the amount of energy in a food Can be used by the body to perform work If not used, is stored by the body as glycogen, or eventually fat

28 Enzymes – Special Proteins
Chemical reactions require specific temperature and environmental requirements that are often not found in the human body An enzyme enables molecules called substrates, to undergo a chemical change to form a new substance

29 Enzymes Features Enzymes speed up chemical reactions but do not take place in the reaction and are not changed by the reaction. Do not make a reaction occur that would not occur on its own Enzymes are reusable Enzymes are specific to their substrate

30 Energy of Reactions Activation Energy – the minimum amount of energy needed to cause a reaction to happen Enzymes lower the activation energy of many reactions that take place in the body

31 Types of Enzymes Amylase – Breaks down sugars
Catalase – breaks down hydrogen peroxide in the blood and in cells DNA polymerase – helps to make copies of DNA Lactase – Breaks down lactose (milk sugars) in the digestive tract

32 The Lock and Key Mechanism of Enzymes

33 Factors such as pH, temperature, and other substances affect enzyme activity



36 Carbohydrates What: Sugars Elements: C, H, O
3 classes: Monosaccharides Ex.) Glucose, fructose Disaccharides Ex.) Sucrose Polysaccharides Ex.) Cellulose, starch Function: Energy

37 Nucleic Acids What they do: Store and transmit genetic information.
Elements: C, N, O, P, H Subunit: Nucleotide Nitrogen base Sugar Phosphate group Ex.) DNA & RNA

38 Lipids What: Waxes, Fats, Oils Elements: C, H
Function: Stores energy, protective layers, insulation 1st major component of cell membranes Examples: Hormones, cholesterol.

39 Proteins Essential to all life. Made up of amino acids.
Elements: C, H, O, N and sometimes S Function: Building block of life 2nd major component of cell membranes Example: enzymes

40 Diffusion random movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration resulting in an even distribution.



43 Dynamic Equilibrium result of diffusion where there is continuous movement of particles but no overall change in concentration.

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