Presentation on theme: "Droogs. The Human Genome Project The HGP mapped out the genetic code of the human race. Information is stored and used to create drugs. Also highlighted."— Presentation transcript:
The Human Genome Project The HGP mapped out the genetic code of the human race. Information is stored and used to create drugs. Also highlighted common genetic variations in people. Possible problemos: It could lead to a two-tier health service. Expense and availability might be prioritised if someone's genetic make-up indicates that the drug in question would not be effective. Could lead to discrimination from employers/insurance companies.
Genetically Modified Microorganisms A gene is identified and isolated using restriction enzymes (enzymes which search for specific nucleotides and splice them). The gene is amplified using PCR. Copies of the gene are inserted into plasmids and are transferred into microorganisms. These are then grown and allowed to reproduce to make lots of the protein. Protein is then purified and used as a drug. Human insulin is made via this method, as well as human blood clotting factors.
Genetically Modified Plants Similar process is done to insert a gene into a bacterium. The bacterium is injected into a plant cell. The plant cell is then grown into an adult plant with a copy of the gene in every cell. The protein can be purified from plant tissues or delivered by eating the plant. Human insulin can also be made via this method, as well as a cholera vaccine.
Genetically Modified Animals The gene for the protein is injected into the nucleus of a fertilised animal oocyte. The egg cell is then implanted into an adult animal. The offspring grows into an adult animal which has a copy of the gene in every cell. The protein produced from the animal is generally purified from the milk of the animal.