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Advances in Genetics Key Concepts

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Presentation on theme: "Advances in Genetics Key Concepts"— Presentation transcript:

1 Advances in Genetics Key Concepts What are three ways of producing organisms with desired traits? What is the goal of the Human Genome Project?

2 Key Terms Selective breeding Inbreeding Hybridization Clone
Genetic engineering Gene therapy genome

3 Selective Breeding One of 3 methods used to develop organisms with desirable traits Select organisms with desirable traits to be parents of next generation Ex: Corn, dogs Two selective breeding techniques are inbreeding and hybridization

4 Inbreeding Crossing 2 individuals that have similar characteristics
Ex. Crossing 2 turkeys that are both plump and grow quickly- offspring are likely to have both those desirable qualities Inbred organisms have alleles that are very similar to parents Inbred organisms are genetically very similar so they may inherit alleles that lead to genetic disorders

5 Hybridization Breeders cross 2 genetically different individuals
Hybrid that results is bred to have best traits from both parents Ex. Crossing one type of corn with large kernels with another that is resistant to disease. Result might be hybrid corn with both of the desired traits

6 Cloning Clone – an organism that has exactly the same genes as the organism from which it was produced Easy to clone many plants – cut a stem, put it in soil and water, and it will develop into a new plant – genetically the same as the parent Researchers have been cloning animals such as sheep, cows, goats and pigs Click and Clone

7 Genetic Engineering Genes from one organism are transferred into the DNA of another organism Used to produce medicines and improve food crops

8 Genetic Engineering in Bacteria
Used to produce insulin Bacteria has 1 DNA molecule in the cytoplasm Also has small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids Scientists insert a human gene into the plasmid The bacteria and all its offspring will now make the protein that this gene codes for –in this case insulin Since bacteria reproduce very quickly, large amounts of insulin can be produced

9 Genetic Engineering in Other Organisms
Can use technique to insert genes into other animals Human genes can be inserted into the cells of cows – The cows will produce the protein for which the gene codes in their milk This has been used to produce the blood clotting protein needed by people with hemophilia Genes have also been inserted into plants to help them survive in cold temperatures and resist insect pests

10 Gene Therapy Using genetic engineering to correct genetic disorders
Involves inserting copies of a gene directly into a person’s cells Ex. To treat hemophilia, doctors would replace the defective allele on the X chromosome so the person’s blood would clot normally

11 Gene Therapy

12 Hurdles for Gene Therapy
First, scientists must find the best way to correct the genetic defect that is causing the disorder Correct or increase the defective cell product Make diseased cells weaker Block operation of diseased cells Second – scientists must find a way to carry the genetically engineered DNA to target cells Viruses are an excellent candidate to deliver the genes because they infect living cells Virus must be genetically engineered to render it harmless

13 Concerns About Genetic Engineering
Some people are concerned about long-term effects of genetic engineering Ex. Are genetically modified foods safe? Concerns that they may harm the environment or cause health problems in humans Scientists are trying to address these concerns and learn more about the effects of genetic engineering

14 Learning About Human Genetics
The Human Genome Project Genome – all the DNA in one cell of an organism Main goal of Human Genome Project has been to identify the DNA sequence of every gene in the human genome Completed first draft - found that we have at least 30,000 genes. Average gene has 3,000 bases

15 DNA Fingerprinting DNA technology can be used
to identify people and show relationships DNA is broken down into small fragments. Selected fragments are used to produce a pattern similar to a fingerprint Except for identical twins no 2 people have the same DNA fingerprint

16 Sources

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