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Digital Object Identifier doi> Norman Paskin, International DOI Foundation.

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Presentation on theme: "Digital Object Identifier doi> Norman Paskin, International DOI Foundation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Digital Object Identifier doi> Norman Paskin, International DOI Foundation

2 D igital O bject I dentifier What is DOI? A unique identifier for "a piece of content on digital networks Digital object interoperability doi>

3 A unique identifier for "a piece of content" in the physical world single, common tool: UPC/EAN Bar Code many uses : once assigned, usable by anyone in chain wide community support made it work self-sustaining cost recovery model etc. standard – helps to integrate systems efficiently Analogy: the physical bar code doi>

4 Financial systems Inventory computer Just-in-Time Ordering Distributor Manufacturer Receiving Store Cash register Head Office The EAN/UPC (bar) code: more than just a quick way to get through the checkout line Unique product identifier also used across supply chain for: - Billing/Payments - Sales Tracking - Financial Reporting - # goods shipped - sales by store or region - etc.

5 SKUs etc are not "actionable" consistently –(They can be included in a DOI) URL is a Location –DOI is a Name (URI, URN); things move, may be at multiple places Interoperability is KEY –Horizontal: across media –Vertical: across supply chain intermediaries Need to do more than just "locate" –(Web) services; rights management Need to be independent of platform –Web, mobile, broadcast, other networks Don't we have identifiers already? doi>

6 "The DOI is the UPC (Bar Code) for objects of intellectual property on the Internet. 1. Uniquely identifies content - therefore enables computers to execute transactions of all kinds 2. Provides a stable, persistent link to the content itself or to services 3. Can be used to automate services What is the DOI? doi>

7 Show DOI as combination of components –use existing standards Show examples of services (applications) built on DOI –Examples here web –based but DOI applies to all platforms How? doi>

8 DescriptionAction Numbering Policies doi>

9 DOI syntax can include any existing identifier, formal or informal, of any entity An identifier container e.g / / / /ISBN /Norman_presentation / Editeur etc

10 framework: DOI can describe any form of intellectual property, at any level of granularity Metadata Kernel metadata –Normalised using indecs DD –ISO identifiers adopting same approach? Application profile metadata –Mapped using indecsDD Any existing schema (ONIX, SCORM, MARC, GRID…) Standard way of accessing –Hooks to Open URL, UDDI, etc XML expressions

11 Handle resolution allows a DOI to link to any & multiple pieces of current data Resolve from DOI to: –Location (URL) - persistence –Multiple locations –Metadata –Services –Nested DOIs (related objects etc) –Extensible: new types Standard internet protocol Scalable, proven In use elsewhere

12 DOI policies allow any business model for practical implementations Common rules of the road (IDF) –Governance and agreed scope, policy, rules Cost-recovery (self-sustaining) Registration agencies (cf ISBN) Each can develop own sector rules, business model, services, fees, metadata etc –DOI at cost –DOI free –DOI with other services –etc

13 framework: DOI can describe any form of intellectual property, at any level of granularity Handle resolution allows a DOI to link to any & multiple pieces of current data DOI syntax can include any existing identifier, formal or informal, of any entity DOI policies allow any business model for practical implementations extensible

14 Resolution provides persistence Easily seen in web applications - DOI never changes, but URL does: Persistent identifier doi> Handle resolution allows a DOI to link to any & multiple pieces of current data doi>

15 Content URL doi> Printed identifiers, bookmarks, etc doi>

16 404 File not found Content URL doi> "Linkrot": recent estimates 16% in 6 months doi>

17 DOI directory URL Content Assigner DOI directory DOI directory DOI doi>

18 Content DOI directory DOI directory DOI directory DOI directory DOI directory Assigner DOI directory DOI directory DOI directory DOI directory Internet doi>

19 Assigner Content DOI directory DOI Response Page purchase content view free excerpt get related items get addl metadata request permissions Assigner doi> More than just "locate" doi>

20 Bookstore Response Page purchase content view free excerpt get related items get addl metadata request permissions Assigner DOI directory purchase content DOI doi>

21 framework: in DOI can describe any form of intellectual property, at any level of granularity Text objects (ONIX) Art objects (CIDOC) Learning objects (SCORM) Audio objects (GRID) Video objects (SMPTE) etc Metadata efficiency doi>

22 framework: DOI can describe any form of intellectual property, at any level of granularity Text objects (ONIX) Art objects (CIDOC) Learning objects (SCORM) Audio objects (GRID) Video objects (SMPTE) etc Metadata efficiency doi> Common single mapping doi>

23 Adding value: services doi> Acrobat plug-in as focus example here (web based) Four example demonstrations shown here: –Version (provide a dynamic update version of the pdf in hand) –Multiple resolution (retrieve multiple data: a URL and some metadata in this case) –CrossRef (retrieve a standard set of metadata and use it in an application, a citation builder) –Rights (very simple e-commerce interface as an illustration) doi>

24 PDF Tool Bar Plug-In [ cache ] doi:10.123/456 Acrobat Reader Forward Linking Service AN Other Service DOI is not visible - within pdf package (like File/Properties in Word, etc) Buttons "pop up" dynamically as services become available doi> Adobe plug-in concept: what PDF document viewed through Acrobat reader doi>

25 Tool Bar Demo 1 – Version

26 Tool Bar cnri.test.jsn/pdf TYPEDATA last_modified T14:06:03-03:00 DOI Handle Record T14:06:03-03:00 Internet Handle System Demo 1 – Version

27 Tool Bar Demo 1 – Version

28 Click below to see animated demo Demo 1 – Version

29 Demo 2 – MultiRes

30 Related links doi>

31 Demo 2 – MultiRes

32

33 Click below to see animated demo.

34 Tool Bar Demo 3 – CrossRef

35 Tool Bar Demo 3 – CrossRef

36 Tool Bar Demo 3 – CrossRef

37 Tool Bar Demo 3 – CrossRef

38 Click below to see animated demo.

39 Tool Bar Demo 4 – Rights

40 Tool Bar XMP Demo 4 – Rights Rights button!

41 Tool Bar Demo 4 – Rights

42 Tool Bar Demo 4 – Rights

43 Click below to see animated demo

44 Put the DOI data in functional units in the DOI record; and the knowledge of what to do with them in the client –Demonstrated with an end-user client (Acrobat) but equally applicable to middleware –No constraints on adding additional functional units to a given DOI –A common approach – could use same Handle record to manage pdf, html, mobile, etc., hence efficient in deploying content across platforms doi> What we have done doi>

45 Assign DOIs to any content; or use assigned DOIs Potentially: identification of other entities as well as content - e.g. "parties" (such as Companies: "Interparty" project and related "indecs" work; use existing numbers?) As a key for an e-commerce mechanism e.g. copy protection, tamper-proofing, signatures, micropayments: NOT a part of DOI, but enabled by it (added value services, tools) How you use it is defined by you - its a tool How can we use it? doi>

46 Several hundred organisations Several million DOIs Example: CrossRef (www.crossref.org) The top 160 publishers of technical articles. around 3 million DOIs per year since Jan 2001 Use DOI to maintain links between them ("citations"); allows each to use their own # system Local copies; versions; links to supplementary material Who is using it now? doi>

47 CrossRef Learning Objects Inc (USA, DoD) Enpia (Korea: government endorsed) CDI (Consultancy, E Books, CORBIS, etc) CAL (Australian RRO) TSO (The Stationery Office) Others being discussed e.g. Multilingual European DOI Registration Agency Content ID Forum (Japan) Music Industry project Registration Agencies (Oct 2002) doi>

48 DOI Registration Agencies Enpia Systems For-profit Existing Software Firm Korea, 2001 Learning Objects Network For-profit Start-up Distance Education Software Firm Vermont, 2001 Default RA IDF/CNRI Reston, 1997 Copyright Agency, Ltd. For-profit Existing Rights Clearinghouse Australia, 2002 Multilingual European DOI Registration Agency (MEDRA) Non-profit Consortium of Existing European Government Publisher Organizations Not Yet Appointed The Stationery Office For-profit Existing Publisher spun out of HMSO London, 2002 Content Directions For-profit Start-up DOI Consulting Firm New York, 2001 CrossRef Non-Profit Start-up Consortium of Existing Large Publishers Boston, 2000 doi>

49 International DOI Foundation (IDF) Open member organisation, launched 1998 Members; publishing, technology, intermediaries Modelled on W3C, and on the Bar code development Who is behind it? doi>

50 DOI-News brief monthly mailing list DOI Reports to members (extensive) DOI Handbook; FAQ More information? doi> Main source of information doi>

51 Digital Object Identifier doi> Norman Paskin, International DOI Foundation

52 Supplementary material DOI Application profiles concept Supporting IDF: benefits IDF development path DOI and internet standards Appendix

53 DOI Application Profiles h app. profile Each Profile can be thought of as built from the kernel + extensions: DOI AP metadata for application Compulsory kernel for any DOI doi>

54 AP10 Application may be defined in terms of another scheme, e.g. ONIX DOI Term ONIX doi> Metadata elements h app. profile

55 AP10 Application defined in terms of another scheme, e.g. ONIX DOI Term ONIX doi> =

56 AP10 Must have mapping for each element e.g. ONIX Page = iid 734 (DOI Term Set) doi>

57 AP10 DOI Term Set ONIX

58 doi> AP10 DOI users can see metadata as all defined in DOI terms:

59 doi> AP10 AP27 The advantage is in additional schemes/mappings:

60 doi> AP10 AP27

61

62 Persistent identification –Not just a location –Permanent, trackable, name –Stays the same if ownership, location, control changes –No need to update customers if location changes Can incorporate existing identifiers –Standard e.g. ISBN, ISSN, ISMN, SICI, ISRC –Non-standard / public e.g. PII –Private e.g. workflow, internal production –Assigned by the publisher –or on his behalf Can interoperate metadata standards –Application profiles, kernel metadata, indecsDD Benefits of supporting DOIs doi>

63 Automated link from DOI to any (and multiple) points –Controlled by the assigner –e.g. Multiple locations; purchase options; additional info; access control can be made available and controlled globally by the publisher. Can be invoked globally by an intermediary, etc. Build your own custom features : entirely extensible architecture Generic applicability ; any form of intellectual property, any granularity (text, music, audio..) –Simple standard metadata associated with each DOI to ensure interoperability Conforms to, and works with, existing standards Using DOIs doi>

64 Promotes ready use of material in a legal, controllable, manner Proven, implemented, real system in use now –e.g. CrossRef: 160+ publishers, around 3 million DOIs per year since Jan 2001, around 2 million resolutions per month, supports existing businesses Demonstrated unique additional features –multiple resolution; DOI-APs –use of these limited only by your imagination Low risk –not a proprietary system; available at low cost –controlled by neutral, not-for-profit Foundation with single aim. –built on open standards. –comprehensive effort reduces risk of "dead-end": Asia as well as EU, US; multimedia e.g. text, music, software Business benefits doi>

65 IDF participates in other efforts W3C, IETF DRM activities PRISM, ONIX, indecs2….. ISO TC46, ISO MPEG NISO, WIPO, etc Music industry: GRID, CR Forum Content ID Forum (Japan) Indecs TV Anytime etc No one company can participate in all these doi> Leverage other activities doi>

66 if this is desirable, it must be paid for membership supports development until operating federation takes over community invests now to get benefit for all coordinated work to provide efficient operation ensure consistent deployment and avoid fragmentation prevent conflicts and promote efficiency outreach to other efforts doi> Why is support needed? doi>

67 Ensure the DOI is widely implemented –Existing applications need underpinning of consistent rules, infrastructure, and wide uptake Ensure Content community sets standards –Technology standards are not enough (Napster) –No other existing forum is doing this: W3C, OEBF, MPEG21 etc. all looking at parts DOI results from extensive work by AAP, IPA, STM (1997+) - a consistent development path IDF has strong position, and support. –Content and technology communities are represented Promote collaboration –interoperate with others; reduce costs, prevent mistakes –provide a common platform but retain ability to build added- value services. Benefits of supporting IDF doi>

68 Cost effective way of gaining access to expertise –Cost is equivalent to 2-3 man days per month of one consultant (even at highest membership level) –Detailed Monthly briefings on other activities (WIPO, W3c, IETF, MPEG, ISO, OEBF, SIIA, etc), and more expertise available on request Preferential access to business opportunities: –IDF makes connections between members and potential applications: explore at low risk possible business opportunities –Early access to results of prototypes, plans Share cost of development of prototypes –Costs can be shared by participants Influence the course of the IDF –participate in working groups, annual meeting, prototypes, board Benefits of supporting IDF doi>

69 An additional business opportunity for some members Build on the features and acceptance of the system –build on existing services or offer new services –management of content, management of metadata, etc. RAs may build as little or as much as they wish on this –simple assignment, through to a wide range of services RAs determine their own fate: –IDF provides federal structure for infrastructure, predictable costs and governance model –open market structure for applications Business opportunity is a shared risk: –DOI service supported by multiple RAs and multiple applications –Shared costs of the infrastructure –common infrastructure encourages common added-value tools Registration Agencies doi>

70

71 Activity tracking Activity tracking Full implementation Full implementation Initial implementation Initial implementation Single redirection (persistent identifier ) Metadata W3C, WIPO, NISO, ISO, UDDI etc. Multiple resolution A continuing development activity DOI: development path doi>

72 A number (or name) –assign a number to something –(compare: telephone number) DOI: components

73 A number (or name) –assign a number to something –(compare: telephone number) A description –what the number is assigned to –(compare: directory entry) DOI: components

74 A number (or name) –assign a number to something –(compare: telephone number) A description –what the number is assigned to –(compare: directory entry) An action –make the number do something –(compare: the telephone system) DOI: components

75 A number (or name) –assign a number to something –(compare: telephone number) A description –what the number is assigned to –(compare: directory entry) An action –make the number do something –(compare: the telephone system) Policies –how to get a phone number; billing (compare: social structures) DOI: components

76 Imagine a country where nobody can identify who owns what, addresses cannot easily be verified, people cannot be made to pay their debts, resources cannot conveniently be turned into money, ownership cannot be divided into shares, descriptions of assets are not standardized and cannot easily be compared, and the rules that govern property vary from neighbourhood to neighbourhood or even street to street. You have just put yourself into the life of a developing country or former communist nation doi> Our aim: Building infrastructure The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Succeeds in the West and Fails Everywhere Else by Hernando de Soto (2000) doi>

77 One of the most important things a formal property system does is transform assets from a less accessible condition to a more accessible condition, so that they can do additional work. Unlike physical assets, representations are easily combined, divided, mobilized, and used to stimulate business deals. By uncoupling the economic features of an asset from their rigid, physical state, a representation makes the asset "fungible" - able to be fashioned to suit practically any transaction. doi> Our aim: Building infrastructure The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Succeeds in the West and Fails Everywhere Else by Hernando de Soto (2000) DOI: provide the tools for representations of intellectual property doi>

78

79 Distinguish two issues: 1. The technical specification of what is a URN and a URI 2. What this means for practical implementation Internet standards: DOI, URN and URL doi>

80 See DOI handbook chapter 4 –4.9 DOI as a URI –4.10 DOI as a URN –equally true of all HDLs – DOIs are HDLs Aim: DOIs are persistent across time and unique across network space DOIs are URIs (formally draft specification) DOIs are URNs (in effect) URN and URI proponents disagree – the URN wars 1. Internet specs doi>

81 1. Internet specs doi> URNURL URI Resolution (N2L) (But largely from IETF, W3C did not see need for URN) urn: ftp: gopher: http: doi>

82 IETF formal spec URI scheme for Digital Object identifier –Paskin, Norman; Neylon, Eamonn; Hammond, Tony; Sun, Sam; Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) scheme for Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs); (February 2002) An abstract specification (uri:doi:) –Would be doi: (like tel:) [uri: is not part of the uri spec, unlike urn:] May be a pure name or de-referenced by any service –The namespace provides its own mechanism (Bootstrapping) RFC 2396: UTF-8 encoding allows non-Roman characters On its own, its just a specification! Requires code distribution for any implementation DOI as URI doi>

83 URN is less clear: –Higher level situation muddy –Set of IETF drafts that define URN –Set of registered namespaces (e.g. isbn) DOI could be but isnt- no advantage Unlike URI, provides a specific DNS-based middle layer (RDS) to find the appropriate resolution service Scalability and security questioned; and: Little or no resolution implementation –Resolution proposed is one specific way: –NAPTR(Name Authority Pointer) turns urn:hdl: /1 into –Recently DDDS(Dynamic Delegation Discovery System): variant of NAPTR DOI as URN doi>

84 urn:isbn: can be defined ; but what does it do over and above isbn: ? –neither have a readily available, well known, global, resolution What if NAPTR were widely deployed? (5 years on)? Some advantage: could redirect from one URL proxy to another –urn:doi to redirect to But this is a regular expression: not software And still worries about DNS issues –Gratuitous use of DNS –DNS name servers are widely distributed – inertia –No security of resolution DOI as URN doi>

85 Persistence across time and network space desirable Do not want to bet on the URN logic of putting a resolution system in front of resolution systems –Especially the one proposed But –DOIs ARE URIs (formally) –DOIs ARE URNs (in effect) But: this is not the most important issue! 1. Internet specs doi>

86 Irrespective of all this URI/URN specification, DOIs are still needed, still useful, still valid A DOI is more than HDL –Adds Policy, business rules, business model –Adds Metadata specifications (cf ISBN, EAN, Visa) e.g. Mappings: –Ensures semantic integrity –A technical exercise: –A term is assigned a unique value in the iDD –Given a genealogy and ContextDescription –Other information added –A mapped term becomes part of the dictionary Hence will become more useful as it grows –Consensual between the two things being mapped –Painstaking, but once-only –Specialist services requiring intellectual input 2. Practical implementation doi>

87 On this topic, see DOI Handbook Ch. 3.6: Social infrastructure DOI Handbook Ch. 6: on The Handle System and using HDL without DOIs DOI Handbook Ch. 13: on RAs and using DOIs without RAs 2. Practical implementation doi>


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